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YaTROMEHANIKA (synonym yatrofizi, yatromatematika; Greek iatros the doctor + mechanics) — the direction in medicine of 15 — 18 centuries, adherents to-rogo tried to explain all physiological and pathological phenomena on the basis of laws of mechanics.

Since the end of 16 century in Europe natural sciences, hl began to develop violently. obr. mathematics and physics. «At such state of affairs — F. Engels wrote — was inevitable, that first place was won by the simplest natural sciences — mechanics of terrestrial and celestial bodies, and along with it, in service of it, opening and improvement of mathematical methods. Here great causes were made... Other industries of natural sciences were far even from such preliminary end» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd prod., t. 20, Art. 348).

The advanced scientists aimed to use the latest developments of science in medicine. Yatromekhanik made the significant contribution to development Nikolay Kuzansky (Nicolaus Cusanus, 1401 — 1464), G. .Galilei, S. Santorio, J. Bo-relli, J. Baljivi, G. Burkhava, R. Descartes, etc. One of the first representatives yatromekhanik the philosopher educator, the mathematician Nikolay Kuzansky in «Dialogue about a statics» (1450) wrote about weighing of the emitted urine, determination of mass of blood in an organism, about comparison of a respiration rate and heartbeat, etc. At the end of 16 century the great physicist and the astronomer Mr. G. .Galilei together with the doctor and the physiologist S. Santorio invented the first device for measurement of body temperature — a water thermoscope, and also devices for determination of force of a pulsation of arteries, air humidities (hygroscope), tools for extraction of foreign bodys from an ear and for operation of a lithotomy, a trocar, cannulas. For the account of pulse Galilei and

S. Santorio compared synchronism of ictuses with a pendulum; they considered derogation from synchronism a disease. The account of pulse in the same years was offered also by the astronomer J. Kepler. Long experimenting of S. Santorio on itself had heroic character: in specially designed camera he studied many years a metabolism, trying to compare the weight of the eaten food and drink with the weight of allocations, including imperceptible evaporations from the surface of skin. Capital work

of S. Santorio «About medicine of balance» (1614), to-ry laid the foundation for experimental physiology, is written entirely from positions yatromekha-nicknames. In 17 century astronomers Kepler, Sheyner (Ch. Schemer), etc., being engaged in improvement of optical devices, followed tradition of the medieval Arab mathematician and physics optics of Ibn - - Find fault with al - itself (965 — 1039), to-ry gave the anatomic and physiological description of an eye and studied refraction of rays of light in an eye, the phenomena of convergence, short-sightedness, far-sightedness, etc. The philosopher, the physicist and the mathematician R. Descartes in the anatomo-fiziolo-gicheskom the treatise «Description of a Human Body», condemning «an ignorance of mechanics and anatomy», writes in the preface: «... there is no more fruitful occupation, than knowledge of itself. The advantage which can be expected from such knowledge belongs... preferential to the field of medicine». R. Descartes considered an organ of sight as the optical device, the human body compared with hours. From positions yatromekhanik also classical «The anatomic research about the movement of heart and blood at animals» of U. Garvey is written (1628). In the proofs of isolation of blood circulation U. Garvey proceeded first of all from exact calculation of amount of blood in an organism. J. Borelli in the main work «About the Movement of Animals» (1680) tried to give to all processes in an organism mechanical interpretation, expressing them in mathematical formulas. Studying processes of breath and reduction of skeletal muscles and heart, he for the first time introduced the idea about «irritation of a cardiac muscle nerves». A successor of the ideas J. Borelli was

J. Balyivi — the popular Roman doctor. In the physiological works it, as well as Borelli, assimilated a hand to the lever, glands — to a sets, a thorax — to forge bellows, heart — to the pump, etc. The Dutch chemist, the botanist and the doctor-clinical physician Mr. Burkhave, describing an image of the perfect doctor in «Medical establishments», wrote: «Devoted himself to studying of fundamentals of medicine is accepted to it the same as if consideration of geometrical figures, bodies, weights, speeds, designs, mechanisms was necessary to it...». He understood breath, digestion purely mechanistic — «under laws of mechanics, a hydrostatics, hydraulics»; and an inflammation considered formation of heat in a body as result of friction of blood about walls of vessels.

Yatromekhanika was presented in medical literature of 18 century, napr, in the thesis of the anatomist L. Heister «About mechanical medicine» (1748). The known work of B. Ramazzini «A reasoning on diseases of handicraftsmen» (1700) had in the first option a subtitle «The medico-mechanical treatise». «In our century all medicine, one may say, is reduced to mechanics» — he wrote in the preface to this work.

By the end of 18 century unilateral limited a yatromekhanik as a result of development of a number of the industries of natural sciences (chemistry, biology) became obsolete. Further influence of physics and mathematics on medical science got new, deeper forms. The latest developments of physics, cybernetics, electronics are more and more widely applied in diagnostic methods and treatments, in researches of processes of life activity of an organism.

Bibliography: Glazer G. About thinking in medicine, the lane with it., page 41, M., 1969; History of medicine, under the editorship of B. D. Petrov, t. 1, page 114, M., 1954; Garrison F. N of An introduction to the history of medicine, p. 257, Philadelphia — L., 1960; Geschichte der Medizin, hrsg. v. A. Mette u. I. Winter,

B., 1968; Mitchell W. S. The early history of instrumental precision in medicine, New Haven, 1892.

P.E. Zabludowsky.