WALKING — a way of movement of the person and animals. Walking of the person is characterized by alternation of the periods of a support and transfer of each leg, and also existence of the two-basic period, during to-rogo both legs are on a support. Walking differs in it from the run (see) having a so-called flight interval, during to-rogo any of legs has no contact with a support.
Walking is cyclic process: consecutive phases
of the movement of legs and all body repeat through approximately equal time terms. At the same time almost all body is involved in the movement. The movements of hands in the course of walking of a protivofazna to the movements of legs — movement of the right leg is followed forward by the return movement of the right hand while the left hand follows the movement of the right leg. Also the movements of a basin and a shoulder girdle have antiphase character. In this regard the backbone during the walking «is alternately twisted» diversely. Such movements of hands and backbone promote smoothness of movements of a body. The center of gravity of a body during the walking moves not on a straight line forward, and on the difficult curve close to a sinusoid — up — down (amplitude of 4 — 6 cm) and to the left — to the right (amplitude apprx. 2 cm). In this regard also pressure of legs upon a support is not constant: at the moments when the leg steps on a support and makes a start (front and back dynamic pushes), pressure upon a support exceeds body weight, and between these moments — - it is less than the body weight. The size of dynamic pushes depends on the speed of movement. Speed of walking is defined by speed (quantity of steps in unit of time) and length of a step. Power consumption
at increase in speed of movement ranging from 4 increases up to 6,5 km/h in direct ratio speeds. At big speeds power consumption increases more intensively. Calculation of power consumption on unit of the passable way showed that walking with a speed apprx.
4 km/h is followed by the minimum power consumption. Existence of a power minimum of walking is connected with the instinctive aspiration which is available for each person to choose optimum speed (apprx. 110 steps a minute) and the certain length of a step correlating with sizes and body weight.
As in the course of walking almost all muscles of a trunk and extremities participate, this way of movement is followed by strengthening of ventilation of the lungs, blood circulation, increase in metabolic rate. The dynamic pushes accompanying process of walking contribute to normalization of a tone of blood vessels of legs, reduction of venous stagnation. Therefore the dosed walking is used as a preventive and medical factor, napr, at prevention of negative effects of a hypokinesia (see) and hypodynamias (see), at diseases of cardiovascular system (see) etc. The experience accumulated in the field of recreational and physiotherapy exercises (see Physical culture and sport), testifies to multilateral favorable effects of walking, and walking, thus, can be considered as organized and systematic training process with constantly carried out keeping track of by the size of loading (see the Training).
Walking is among the high-automated movement skills (see the Movements). Various departments of c are involved in regulation of walking. N of page (see. Motor analyzer). In particular, movements of legs are carried out under control of structures of a spinal cord (see), stvolovomozzhechkovy mechanisms take part in regulation of balance during the walking (see Balance of a body). Walking of the healthy person has the specific features (see Gait).
Disturbances of X. are observed at various defeats of c. the N of page and a musculoskeletal system, and for different forms of pathology are characteristic certain disturbances of gait. Allocate I antalgiche-will hold down (sparing, analgetic) the gait observed at patients with joint pains of legs, a backbone with obliterating defeats of vessels of extremities (see); ataxic gate (see the Ataxy), at a cut preservation of balance and the direction of the movement is complicated; spastic and akinetiko-ri-gidnuyu gait, etc.
For a research of walking various methods of optical registration (see Tsiklografiya, Kimotsiklografiya), measurements of duration of phases of a support and transfer, length of steps, speeds and accelerations, etc. are used (see the Biomechanic). Quantitative indices of disturbances of rhythm and symmetry of walking (see Lameness) are used in the analysis of efficiency of means of motive rehabilitation. Bibliography: Bernstein N. A.
About creation of movements, M., 1947;
about N e, Sketches on physiology of movements and physiology of activity, M., 1966; Researches on biodynamics of walking, run, a jump, under the editorship of N. A. Bernstein, M., 1940; Physiology of the movement, under the editorship of V. S. Gurfinkel, etc., D., 1976; Neural control of locomotion, ed. by R. M. Herman a. o., N. Y. — L., 1976. V. S. Gurfinkel.