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TRAINING (English train to bring up, train, develop) — process of systematic impact on an organism by means of any means for training, improvement of an art, increase or preservation on a high level of intellectual and physical effeciency, adaptation to various living conditions.

T. it is applied in various spheres of activity of the person, especially where there are special working conditions (flight business, diving works, space flights, etc.) and the environmental factors complicating activity of the person (high and low air temperature, average and mountain areas, etc.), and also in sport. The T is most effective. in combination with an evidence-based work-rest schedule of trained.

At the heart of T. the mechanism of adaptation of an organism to specific conditions of existence and a certain training influences lies; it is shown by changes at the ionic, subcellular, cellular, organ, system levels and in an organism in general.

In the course of T. in an organism occur morfol., fiziol. and biochemical changes, an orientation and expressiveness to-rykh depend on the purposes and character of T. At T. resistance of an organism to action of adverse factors increases, activity of functional systems reasonablly changes, a metabolic cost of an organism on unit of the made work decreases, the new, economic ratio between the power of the performed work and activity of the blood circulatory systems, breath, allocation, etc. is established, the possibility of the maximum mobilization by an organism of activity of various systems and bodies raises. Success of T. depends on a regularity and gradualness of strengthening of action of an irritant, compliance of force of influence to functionality of an organism. An essential role in T. plays age. So, speed develops mainly up to 14 — 15 years, at elderly and especially senile age development of adaptation, morfol. and biochemical reorganization of bodies and fabrics are considerably slowed down. In these conditions regular T. promotes strengthening of health and provides adaptation of an organism to exercise and emotional stresses in specific conditions of the environment. T. as the method is used also in physiotherapy exercises (see).

Sports training — process of systematic impact on an organism physical. exercises, the purpose to-rykh is strengthening of health, formation and improvement of movement skills, development of certain physical and mental qualities, expansion of the functionality of an organism necessary for achievement of a sports result in specific sport. Sports T. includes also education of high moral and moral qualities of the person, promotes formation of the athlete as the persons capable to achieve high sports results. Main components of sports T. are physical, technical, tactical, moral and strong-willed training of the athlete for what various means and methods are used. The choice and their combination, and also character, volume and intensity of the exercise stresses used at the same time, alternation of loading and rest, participation in competitions depend on age, sex, the state of health and level of readiness training, tasks and conditions of each stage of preparation.

Sports T. is based on the principles of adequacy and an optimality of the applied training loads, use of various means and methods of the general and special preparation, their rational combination taking into account alternation of the training influences and rest (see Physical culture and sport).

Fiziol. essence of sports T. makes process of adaptation of an organism to action of repeatedly repeated irritants — the exercise stresses and factors causing psychoemotional tension during the competitions.

In the course of T. various movement skills form, force, speed, endurance, flexibility, dexterity and other qualities develop and improved, there is a gradual formation of fitness.

Fitness — the condition of an organism developing as a result of regular T. It defines sports operability, degree of readiness for achievement of good result and depends on the level of physical, technical, tactical and psychological fitness of the athlete.

It is accepted to call the highest level of fitness sportswear.

Degree of fitness is estimated by means of special observations of trainers and medico-biol. by methods. The last use for assessment of health and a functional condition of the athlete (see. Medical control). Control of a functional state as it most accurately reflects dynamics of fitness is especially important. In the mass forms of physical culture and sport which are not putting a task achievement of high sports results, the main criteria of fitness are health and good health.

Increase of fitness is shown by morfofunktsionalny reorganization at all levels of life activity of an organism (central, system, fabric, molecular), improvement of mechanisms of regulation, expansion of functionality of an organism, improvement of reaction to exercise stresses, acceleration of processes of recovery. In a condition of muscular rest increase in profitability of work of the blood circulatory systems and breath, increase in sokratitelny ability of a myocardium, the sizes of heart, utilization of oxygen by fabrics, activities of a number of enzymes, improvement of activity of c is noted. N of page and neuromuscular device. During an exercise stress the trained organism is capable to support normal functioning of all systems with the broad range of change of a homeostasis in time. Reaction to moderate loading becomes more and more economic, the oxygen request is satisfied at a smaller tension of systems of breath and blood circulation, accelerate a vrabatyvaniye in loading and recovery after it. At maximum loads the trained organism is capable to bigger, than unexercised, mobilization of activity of all functional systems, as the possibility of achievement of high sports result provides.

For identification of level of fitness medical inspection shall be complex as in the course of T. extent of changes of separate bodies and systems can be unequal that depends on the purposes and the mode T., stage of preparation, age, reference state and specific features of training.

At correctly training the good health, high performance, desire to train, good tolerance of training and competitive loads are noted.

Disturbances of fitness (overfatigue, an overtraining, an overstrain) can arise at discrepancy of conditions and the mode T., and also the used loadings to age and a state training, with participation in T. and competitions of sportskhmen in the period of a disease or after disturbances. These disturbances of trainings are followed by deterioration in health, decrease in adaptation to loadings, the general and sports working capacity, sometimes development of various premorbid and morbid conditions.

Overtraining (disadaptation) — disturbance reached in the course of T. optimum level of regulation of activity of all systems of an organism that is shown, first of all, by changes of a functional condition of c. N of page. The overtraining can proceed as neurosis (see), being shown by decrease in working capacity and sports results, loss of interest in T., deterioration in health (increased fatigue, slackness, apathy, unstable mood, sleep disorders and appetite, emergence of unpleasant feelings in heart, headaches, weight in legs, etc.). Movement skills and usual technology of the movements fall apart, coordination is broken, the weight (weight) of a body and force of muscles, resistance to diseases and injuries, action of stressorny factors decrease. Changes in a metabolism and energy, water exchange, thermal control can be observed. For the second time there can be frustration of a heart rhythm, disturbance of a trophicity of a myocardium and function of a liver, fluctuation of sizes ABP. At more expressed degree of an overtraining there are changes from other bodies and systems, adaptation to loadings changes: there are atypical reactions, power consumption at commission of work increases, adaptation to loadings and recovery after them is slowed down.

The overtraining at athletes comes preferential under the influence of the postponed diseases, psychoemotional stresses, insufficient recovery after loadings, too frequent competitions, etc. Character and extent of changes in a condition of the athlete depend on his specific features and a stage of an overtraining. In these cases the temporary termination of T is necessary. or change of their character with reduction of volume and intensity of loadings, an exception of competitions, increase in intervals of rest, number of nonspecific exercises and switchings. Treatment shall be directed first of all to increase in the general stability and body resistance (see Resistance of an organism) by normalization of a general regime and a dream of athletes, the good balanced nutrition, use of various physical factors (UF-radiation, aero ionization, pine needle baths, various flourishes, massage) and nek-ry pharmaceuticals. At dysfunctions of any system or body carry out the corresponding corrective treatment. Apply psychotherapy to normalization of a psychoemotional state (see), including an autogenic training.

Owing to improvement of system T. and methods of medical and pedagogical observation (see. Medical control) now the expressed manifestations of an overtraining meet rather seldom.

The overstrain arises at sharp discrepancy of an exercise stress to health and functionality of an organism. Distinguish the acute overstrain arising under the influence of the single loading exceeding possibilities of an organism, and chronic when inadequate loadings were applied a long time. The acute overstrain is observed preferential at malotrenirovan-ny persons. At the trained athletes it can develop as a result of T. and the competitions held during a disease in extremely adverse weather conditions, and also against the background of disturbances (alcohol intake, a sleep debt, etc.). The acute overstrain is shown by a sudden sharp aggravation of symptoms in time or right after loading: time

weakness, short wind, tachycardia vivatsya, there is a pallor, the ABP decreases, the sizes of a liver increase, often there is a short-term loss of consciousness. In hard cases development of a myocardial infarction (see), an acute heart failure (see), disturbances of cerebral circulation is possible (see). Prp emergence of simn-volumes of an acute overstrain render to the athlete the first medical aid (absolute rest, cold on the head, the warm-hearted N stimulating breath of means p other), if necessary direct to treatment. Opportunity and terms of resuming of T. are defined by the doctor depending on the subsequent state of health of the athlete.


Hron. the overstrain can arise at persons of different age and level of readiness, but to a thicket is observed at the young athletes training with especially big loadings. Its development is promoted existence of the centers hron. infections in an organism, disturbances, the postponed diseases. Unlike an overtraining hron. the overstrain is shown by changes from separate bodies and systems whereas the general state and working capacity can long remain at the previous level. Example hron. an overstrain the so-called overstrain of heart serves, to-rogo dystrophy of a myocardium (see the Myocardial dystrophy) owing to disturbance of energy and mineral metabolism, a ratio of neurohormones, etc. is the cornerstone (see Heart).

Treatment hron. an overstrain depends on localization and the nature of the arisen disturbances. The question of the admission to trainings in this state and their mode is solved individually.

Prevention of the states connected with disturbance of fitness consists in the correct selection of athletes to exclude the admission to T. and to competitions of persons to deviations in the state of health, and also in the rational mode and a technique of T., regular medical and pedagogical control, full recovery after big training p competitive loadings, use of means of increase nonspecific at with t about ich vost and an orga of N from ma.

See also Medical control, Muscular work, Sports medicine.

Bibliography: Questions of power training of athletes according to medical researches, sost. S. P. Letunov, M., 1965, bibliogr.; Vorobyov A. N. Heavy athletics sport, Sketches on physiology and a sports training, M., 1977; Endurance at athletes, under the editorship of

S. P. Letunov, century 1, M., 1971; And N d e l-sman A. B. and Smirnov K. M. Physiological bases of a technique of a sports training, M., 1970, bibliogr.; Children's sports medicine, under the editorship of S. B. Tikhvinsky and S. V. Khrushchev, M., 1980; Value and assessment of simple methods of a medical research of athletes in the light of data of modern science, under the editorship of A. N. Vorobyov, etc., Malakhovka, 1980; To at to about l e in with to and y G. M. and of p and e in with to and I am N. D. Fundamentals of sports medicine, M., 1971; Medical

problems of the highest sports skill, under the editorship of N. D. Grayevskaya, page 53, M.,

1975; Spendthrifts of l yansky R. E., Hundred - about in a L. II. and Jordan to and I am S. A. Physical culture and age, M., 1967; Normal physiology, under the editorship of A. V. Korobkov, M., 1980; Problems

of sports medicine, under the editorship of S. P. Letunov, etc., page 6, M., 1972; Sports medicine, under the editorship of A. V. Chogovadze and L. A. Butchenko, page 383, M., 1984; H about lima n W. u. H e t t i g e of T h. Sport-medizin-Arbeits-imd Trainingsgrundlagen, Stuttgart — N. Y., 1976. Bibliogr.

A. H. Sparrows, H. D. Grayevskaya.