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THERAPEUTIC MUDS (synonym peloida) — the natural educations consisting of water, mineral and organic substances, representing the homogeneous, finely dispersed plastic mass which is characterized by certain thermal characteristics thanks to what they are applied in a heated state in to lay down. purposes.

In the USSR G. of l. are used generally in the natural, minimum changed view, with preservation their natural physical. properties and chemical structure. In the Western European countries to lay down. dirt, hl. obr. peat, specially prepare for to lay down. procedures (dry up, crush, mix with water).

G.'s education in l. occurs under the influence of natural factors: geological, climatic, hydrological, physical and chemical and biological. The place of their education are various reservoirs (the seas, gulfs, lakes, ponds, etc.), swamps, and also sites of the land surface in which as a result of a row geol. processes there are zones of destruction, crushing, fluidifying of rocks and their carrying out on a surface. Material for G.'s education in l. the mineral particles, organic matters consisting of the died-off vegetable and animal organisms decomposed and processed by microorganisms, colloid particles of organic and inorganic structure, water serve.

Structure and composition of therapeutic muds

On G.'s structure of l. represent difficult physical. - the chemical system including three interconnected parts: mud solution, skeleton of dirt and colloid complex.

Mud solution consists of water and salts dissolved in it, organic matters, gases and is derivative waters or brines (the high-concentrated, saturated solution of various salts) covering mud deposits. Mud solution impregnates all mass of dirt; it is characterized by various mineralization, ionic and gas structure, the size pH (reaction of dirt).

The general water content in dirt, or humidity of dirt, in their various types changes from 25 to 97%. The mineralization of mud solution (the sum of solutes, without gases) in dirt of various types also fluctuates over a wide range: from 0,01 g/l in peat and sapropels to 350 g/l in silt sulphidic mud. In the last within the same field the mineralization can change depending on the area, a depth of dirt, seasons of year and in the long-term period.

The ionic composition of mud solution can be very various and the hl depends. obr. from character of the waters feeding the mud field. Between the mud solution and waters covering dirt the processes of diffusion directed to establishment of ion-salt balance between them constantly proceed.

Gases in dirt contain in the basic in the dissolved state. Source of their education are hl. obr. biochemical, processes as a result of which in mud solution collect hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide gas, nitrogen, hydrogen and methane. The composition of gases is various at different types G. of l. also can change depending on a depth of mud deposits, and in its top coat and from seasons of year that is caused by various intensity of bacterial processes.

Reaction of dirt (pH) is defined first of all by chemical composition of mud solution and the direction occurring in dirt biol, processes; it can change from highly acid (in peat) to clearly alkaline (in sulphidic silt mud).

The chemical composition of mud solution (mineralization, ionic composition, content of gases, the size pH) is significantly various at different types of peloid and in many respects defines their various action on an organism at mud cure.

Gases and ions of some substances which are contained in G. of l., get through skin. The dirt which is characterized by a high mineralization or acid reaction exerts more expressed impact on course of many processes in an organism. In this regard highly mineralized dirt and acid dirt can be applied to obtaining therapeutic effect at lower temperatures of heating.

The skeleton of dirt (a coarse-dispersion part of dirt) includes silicate particles — gypsum, carbonates and calcium phosphates, magnesium carbonates and other salts, and also a rough organic residues. Allocate G. to l. rough structure in which more than 50% of a skeleton make particles more largely than 0,01 mm (e.g., dirt of the lake Saky) and dirt of thin structure in which particles more small than 0,01 mm prevail (e.g., dirt of the Lake Tambukan). The more fine particles in dirt, the higher it quality.

G.'s assessment h.p. of the point of view of their use for to lay down. the purposes it is made taking into account a so-called contamination of dirt — presence of particles at it to dia, more than 0,25 mm. The contamination can be caused by the maintenance of rough silicate particles, crystals of salts, and also large plant residues. Admissible contamination of G. of l. — to 2 — 3% (in terms of nonvolatile solid of dirt).

The colloid complex (finely dispersed part of dirt) includes various mineral particles less than 0,001 mm in size, organic matters difficult inorganic ferro-both silica-alumina and the organo-miner alny connections (ferrous sulfide, hydrosulphide of iron, silicon to - that, aluminum hydroxides, gland and manganese, sulfur, etc.). The maintenance of colloids in different types G. of l. variously: in silt mud — 4 — 20%, in peat and sapropelic — to 80%.

The adsorptive capacity of G. of l., edges are defined by a possibility of removal at gryazelech. procedures from the surface of skin or mucous membranes of pathogenic microbes, separated a wound surface, etc., it is connected with presence at them of the most fine colloid particles.

For mud cure are important contained in a colloid complex and G.'s skeleton of l. organic matters. In peat dirt organic content reaches 20 — 95% (in terms of nonvolatile solid), in sapropels — 15 — 95%, in silt sulphidic mud — 1 — 5%, in rare instances — 10 — 20%. Organic matters are power material for biol, the processes developing in mud deposits (e.g., for the sulfatreduktion causing accumulation in dirt of such therapeutic active agents as sulfides). In peat and sapropelic dirt organic matters make the main part of their skeleton and a colloid complex thanks to what this dirt has higher heat capacity, than sulphidic silt, and possess the best thermal characteristics raising in some cases their therapeutic effectiveness. These properties allow to appoint applications from such dirt of more high temperatures, however thanks to high heat-retaining ability and gradual heat output portability of such procedures the best.

To biogenic elements G. of l. compounds of nitrogen, carbon, iron, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur, etc. belong. Among them especially big role in to lay down. effect of dirt play sulfides which contain in the form of H2S and HS in mud solution and in the form of sulfur compounds of iron [first of all a gidrotroillita — Fe(HS)2] in a colloid complex of dirt. A large number of the microorganisms developing in peloida, hl. obr. in superficial (30 — 60 cm) a layer of mud deposits, promotes education in them various biol, connections, including possessing bactericidal action. Direct antibacterial action of G. of l is connected with existence of microflora. in relation to a number of pathogenic microbes.

Biol, nature of antibacterial action of G. of l. it is shown in seasonal change of these properties. The specified seasonal fluctuations are connected with flash of life activity of microorganisms during the periods of accumulation of biomass in mud reservoirs (as a rule, during the warm period of year) that increases antibacterial activity of dirt. Bactericidal properties G. of l. are caused not only availability in them of antibacterial substances, but y by direct action on pathogenic microflora of the microbes antagonists which are in dirt. Thanks to processes of self-cleaning from pathogenic microorganisms of G. of l. do not need sterilization. Suitable in a dignity. - bacterial. G.'s relation of l. in a native (natural) look it is possible to impose on open clean wound surfaces. Biochemical, processes in G. of l., promoting their self-cleaning, define one more their important property — ability of some types of dirt to regeneration, i.e. recovery of the balneol. properties. Terms of regeneration for G. of l. various types are not identical — see. Mud economy .

Physical properties of therapeutic muds

In spite of the fact that separate types G. of l. considerably differ from each other, they have a number of the general properties. All G. of l. represent the homogeneous plast which is characterized by certain thermal characteristics (high heat capacity and heat-retaining ability, small heat conductivity).

Heat capacity to lay down. dirt it is characterized by the amount of heat necessary for heating of 1 g of dirt on 1 ° (kal/g-hail). Peat and sapropels have the greatest heat capacity (apprx. 1 kal/g-a hail), heat capacity of silt mud (0,50 — 0,65 kal/g-hail) is less.

Under G.'s heat conductivity of l. the amount of heat transferred to 1 sec. through 1 cm is understood 2 sections of a layer of dirt on distance in 1 cm under the influence of temperature difference in 1 ° (kal/sm-sec.-hail). Heat conductivity depends on structure and humidity of dirt. The greatest heat conductivity silt mud, lower — peat and sapropels possess.

Heat-retaining ability to lay down. dirt — time (in sec.), for a cut of 1 g of substance at this heat capacity and heat conductivity changes the temperature on 1 °. High heat-retaining ability of G. of l. is especially essential to mud cure.

Peat and sapropels have the greatest heat-retaining ability. Thanks to high heat-retaining ability and small heat conductivity and especially lack of a convection way of transfer of heat in dirt, in to lay down. the practician» is possible to apply G. of l. at a temperature much higher, than water. The same properties define generally limits of heating to the maximum temperatures of different types of dirt (see. Mud cure ). Heated dirt slowly transfers warmly to body tissues and rather long keeps temperature, necessary for influence.

Plasticity of dirt — ability under the influence of external mechanical influence to be deformed without disturbance of structure of dirt and to keep the received form after the termination of influence. The size of pressure (in dynes/cm 2 ), at a cut the current of dirt begins, in balneology it is accepted to call the extreme resistance to shift. A consistence of dirt, the most suitable for holding procedures, corresponds to the size of resistance to shift within 1500 — 2500 dynes/cm 2 . The more the range of water content, in limits to-rogo dirt keeps a certain consistence, the better it plastic properties, the more densely it adjoins to the surface of skin. Peat dirt is less plastic, than silt mud or clay Ils. For giving of the corresponding consistence to them add water to some dirt; other dirt, especially sapropels, condense, upholding in special pools. Need for such special preparation is defined by check analyses of humidity and size of resistance to shift.

Evaluation test of dirt and their suitability for to lay down. procedures their dignity is given on the basis of the stated above characteristic of features of their structure and properties (humidity, a contamination, plastic and viscous properties, a mineralization, availability of sulfides, organic matters, etc.), and also. states. Applied in the USSR physical. - chemical and a dignity. - bacterial, indicators and criteria for evaluation of G. of l., the most often used in mud cure, are presented in the table.

The main physical and chemical and sanitary and bacteriological indicators and criteria for evaluation of the therapeutic muds which are most often applied to mud cure in the USSR

Main types of therapeutic muds, their distribution and resources

the Map of the main fields of therapeutic muds in the USSR (it is schematized according to the card of therapeutic muds of the USSR, prod. GUGK, 1968). Fields are designated by figures on federal republics from the northwest on the southeast. List of the main fields

Of l. on the origin defining their properties and the main features of structure are subdivided into six genetic types: peat dirt, sapropels, sulphidic silt mud, clay Ils, sopochny and hydrothermal dirt. Sulphidic silt mud, sapropels and peat are most widely applied to mud cure.

In the USSR it is known and in various degree it is studied apprx. 500 fields of peloid that it is reflected in «The catalog of fields to lay down. dirt of the USSR» (1968). In total in the USSR in resorts, in mud baths and in extra resort conditions dirt of 130 fields is used (for 1970). The main mud fields in the territory of the USSR are presented on the map, p. 546 — 547.

Peat dirt (peat medical) — the peaty formations of swamps consisting generally of decomposed organic substances and the plant residues collecting as a result of dying off of the higher plants and their incomplete decomposition at excess moistening and a lack of oxygen. Mineral substances in the majority of peat contain in a small amount (at most to 50%), in some types of peat — so-called earthy — more than 50% of nonvolatile solid.

Peat dirt represents heavy, plastic body from brown till black color. Water content in them 60 — 85%. The skeleton of peat is formed by generally organic material. The ratio of quantity of the decayed and not decayed plant residues defines extent of decomposition of peat, edges is a paramount indicator of its suitability for to lay down. uses also shall make not less than 40% (see Torfolecheniye).

To lay down usually. peat is characterized by the small volume weight (1,0 — 1,3), high heat capacity (0,70 — 0,90 kal/g-hail), various sizes pH, a small mineralization of peat solution (the field Burnt, Pushkin, etc.); only in very highly acid peat the mineralization of solution can reach 250 g/l and more (e.g., in peat of the Sapozhkovsky field). Content of sulfides in peat is usually insignificant; only in hydrosulphuric peat (e.g., in the field in Krainke) this therapeutic the important component contains in quantity to 50 mg/l. Under the terms of water and mineral food of swamps peat is subdivided on riding, transitional and low-lying.

In size of a mineralization of mud solution to lay down. peat is subdivided on fresh-water and mineralized. The first based on the ratio of organic and mineral substances can be low-cindery and high-ash; the second — always high-ash are also divided into plaster (hydrosulphuric) and vitriolic (acid).

Terrestrial peats have a number of advantages before low-lying; they have Bol its high plastic properties and heat capacity, low ash content, higher content of organic matters. With to lay down. the purposes use fresh-water peat (fields in Kashin, Kosino) and mineral peat in which water food sulphatic waters (fields in Krainke, Kemeri, Varzi-Yatchi), and also acid peat (the Sapozhkovsky field) take part. Fields of peat dirt in the USSR are the largest on stocks, in some cases making more than 10 000 000 m 3 . Peat G. of l. are most eurysynusic in sowing. to the forest zone USSR.

Sapropels — the silt deposits of preferential organic structure with small impurity of mineral substances which are formed generally in fresh (is more rare low-mineralized) reservoirs as a result mikrobiol, decomposition of seaweed and other vegetable, and also animal remains. Coloring of sapropels happens olive, brown, gray, pink, black. They are characterized by high humidity and heat capacity (0,70 — 0,90 kal/g-hail), a low mineralization of mud solution (usually less than 1 g/l, less than 0,1 g/l, in some cases to 10 g/l are frequent). Sapropels are subdivided on low-cindery and high-ash. On species composition of an organic residues and character of mineral substances low-cindery sapropels are divided on algal and zoogenovy (the field B. Taraskul) both humus and peaty (Hudykino's field), and high-ash — on clay and izvestkovisty (Moltayevo's field, etc.).

Power of sapropelic deposits in certain fields can reach depth of 10 m, however for lay down. the purposes usually use only them upper (1 — 2 m) layers. Sapropels are spread to territories of the USSR not so widely as peat dirt, however stocks them in certain fields reach 1 000 000 m 3 and more. Sapropels are dated for lakes of tundra, forest-tundra and forest zones.

Sulphidic silt mud — the organomineral finely dispersed silt deposits of salty reservoirs with considerable dominance of mineral components containing various amount of sulfides, in particular sulfur compounds of iron. The last cause their dark gray, often black coloring. Sulphidic dirt, as a rule, contains small amounts of organic matters (1 — 5%), in rare instances — 10 — 20%. On the content of sulfides (FeS) this dirt subdivides on slabosulfidny (0,05 — 0,15%), sulphidic (0,15 — 0,50%) and silnosulfidny (more than 0,50%); on a mineralization of mud solution — on low-mineralized (less than 15 g/l), srednemineralizovanny (15 — 35 g/l), highly mineralized (35 — 150 g/l) and very highly mineralized (more than 150 g/l). The ionic composition of mud solution of sulphidic dirt is very various: chloride sodium (magnesium-sodium is more rare), sulfate-chloride magnesium-sodium (sodium is more rare) hydrocarbonate and gidrokarbonatno-chloride sodium, sulphatic and gidrokarbonatno-sulfate calcic and magnesium-calcium. Fields of sulphidic silt mud in the territory of the USSR meet much less often peat and sapropelic. Stocks them in certain fields reach 1 000 000 — 4 000 000 m 3 . Under the terms of education are distinguished from sulphidic dirt lake and key, continental, seaside and sea.

Lake and key dirt — the deposits of salty reservoirs (a karst, starichny or platinic origin) fed by underground mineral waters. They are characterized by various mineralization of mud solution, various ionic structure (preferential chloride sodium or sulphatic calcic), high content of sulfides (FeS to 0,7%). Unlike other types of dirt, distribution of fields of lake and key dirt to the USSR does not submit to any zonality. Reserves of dirt of these fields are usually small (50 000 — 200 000 m 3 ), what is caused by the small sizes of reservoirs in which they form (Gabozersky, Old-Russian, Paratunsky, etc.).

Continental dirt — oozy deposits of salty lakes of a continental origin (tectonic, starichny, thermokarst, glacial, etc.). They are characterized by various content of sulfides (FeS to 0,5%), black, dark gray, more rare gray coloring, preferential high mineralization (from 35 to 350 g/l) and very various ionic composition of mud solution. Are widespread in the USSR in areas with droughty continental climate. In lakes of desert and semidesertic zones fields of the most highly mineralized sulphidic dirt with small organic content (1 — 2%) form. Lakes of this type quite often contain deposits of salt; formation of crystals of salts in them and salt crusts, especially almost insoluble gypsum, strongly worsens these G.' quality of l. Are widespread in the steppe zone USSR sulphatic and hloridnosulfatny, and in forest-steppe — sulphatic and carbonate mud lakes. Dirt of the last usually contains the increased amounts of organic matters (to 15 — 20%) and is low-mineralized (to 15 g/l). The most large-scale deposits of continental high-valuable dirt in the USSR are Lakes Tambukan, Karachi, Uchum, Shira, Balpash-Soar, etc.

Seaside dirt — deposits of the seaside lakes formed as a result of separation from the sea of gulfs (lagoon) or flooding of mouths of the beams flowing into the sea (estuaries). This dirt is characterized by the highest sizes of content of sulfides (FeS to 0,7%), black and dark gray color and, as a rule, a high mineralization of mud solution (to 350 g/l). The last, usually chloride magnesium-sodium, represents concentrated, in various degree the changed sea water feeding these lakes. Insufficient receipt to these lakes of low-mineralized waters and considerable evaporation leads quite often to their plastering and deterioration of G. of l. Fields of seaside highly mineralized dirt in the USSR are known only on coast of the southern seas located in a zone of droughty climate; the largest of them Saksky, Kuyalnitsky, Chokraksky, Uzunlarsky.

Sea dirt — the deposits of sea gulfs differing in usually low content of sulfides (FeS to 0,2%), light gray, more rare dark gray coloring, dominance in a skeleton of clay particles and a mineralization of mud solution, equal 5 — 50 g/l. On a mineralization and ionic structure their mud solution is close to the sea waters covering them. Fields of sea dirt are known in the USSR in gulfs of the Baltic, White, Azov, Aral, Caspian and Japanese seas (Haapsalu, Sadgorod, Changeable, etc.).

Clay Ils — mineral finely dispersed rainfall modern or ancient (disappeared and buried) reservoirs with small organic content and lack of iron sulfides, with low colloidity and the moisture capacity raised by stickiness, usually gray color (see Glinolecheniye). The USSR meets very seldom, stocks of some fields can make 1 000 000 — 4 000 000 m 3 (e.g., the Satka field about Zlatoust).

Sopochny dirt — the semi-fluid clay educations of heterogeneous mechanical structure resulting from destruction of the rocks which are thrown out in gas and oil bearing areas on tectonic cracks in crust by gases and pressure waters. Are characterized by usually gidrokarbonatno-chloride sodium ionic structure and a mineralization of mud solution of 10 — 20 g/l; contain often increased concentration of bromine, iodine, boron (in the USSR, e.g., dirt of the resort of Akhtala; hills of Tamansky, Kerch and Apsheron peninsulas, Southern Sakhalin).

Hydrothermal dirt — the semi-fluid clay educations arising in areas of vigorous volcanic activity (in the USSR — Kamchatka, Kuril islands) as a result of lixiviation and decomposition of volcanic breeds the high-temperature gas-steam streams containing carbon dioxide gas and ^ hydrogen sulfide. Are characterized by high temperature (to 95 °), acid reaction <(Rr5) and rather low mineralization of mud solution (to 10 g/l). Are studied a little.

Distribution and resources of sopochny and hydrothermal dirt in the territory of the USSR are insignificant.

The artificial peat and sulphidic silt mud received as a result of specially developed techniques represent the plastic weight close on properties to natural dirt. This weight prepared from mineral and organic substances, salts and water (including mineral), will be transformed by the microorganisms brought in it in the form of pure growth or by addition of natural dirt.

On to lay down. to action artificial dirt is rather full-fledged analog natural; however they are used seldom, in conditions when there are no full-fledged mud fields nearby.

See also Mud cure .

The list of the main fields of therapeutic muds in the USSR and places of their use (are designated on the card)

  • The mud field, perspective for use. ** Litter — periodically flooded saline soil.

Bibliography: The card of therapeutic muds of the USSR, 1968, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, etc., M., 1969; The Catalogue of mud fields of the USSR, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, etc., M., 1970; Materials on studying of therapeutic muds, mud lakes and fields, under the editorship of A. M. Malakhov, etc., M., 1963; The Multivolume management of «Fundamentals of balneology», under the editorship of V. A. Alexandrov, t. 1, page 395, M., 1956, bibliogr.; H e-vrayevg.a. About balneological assessment of various types of therapeutic muds (peloi-d), Vopr, kurortol., fizioter., Ha 5, page 385, 1961; Recommendations about studying of fields of therapeutic muds, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, M., 1975, bibliogr.; X and-ritonova L. P. and Kryuchkov N. P. Sanitary and bacteriological assessment of therapeutic muds, Vopr, kurortol., fizioter., No. 5, page 447, 1959.

V. V. Ivanov, L. S. Mikheyeva.