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SYSTEM ENGINEERING — the scientific and technical discipline, a task a cut is creation, testing and operation of complex (big) systems. Difficult system (see) change of many variables, a high level of automation and irregular, predictable only statistically, receipt of external influences is characterized by existence of a large number of elements and functions, complexity of the interdependence between them attracting simultaneous (in most cases nonlinear). Complex systems of technical character are big transport networks and communication systems, information systems, e.g. ACS for large industrial and page - x. complexes (see. Automated control system ), systems of mass service of the population, and also organization and long-term planning of basic and applied researches.

Scientific, and hl. obr. mathematical, the theory of complex systems forms base C. Distinguish theoretical and applied S. Teoreticheskaya S. is directed to the analysis, classification, formalization and modeling of complex systems in general. She uses the general theory of systems, systems analysis (see), methods of economy, sociology, probability theory (see. Probabilities theory ), reliability (see), games (see. Modelling ), and also computers (see. Electronic computer ). Applied S. carries out design of specific complex systems; its functions include the solution of structurally functional questions of system, identification of optimum structure of the appropriate human and material resources in general (so-called macrodesign), development of the specific technical elements forming system (so-called microdesign). The applied system engineering relies on classical engineering disciplines.

In practice of S.'s health care plays an important role in planning (see. Planning of health care ) and implementation of the programs directed to development, pilot study and implementation in a wedge, practice of new medicines, prophylactics, diagnostic methods and treatment of various diseases and also in creation and operation of information systems, systems of mass medical service (e.g., distribution of patients on medical hospitals), etc.

Bibliography: G.'s buzzing of X. and M and to about R. E. Sistemotekhnik's l, Introduction to design of big systems, the lane with English, M., 1962; L and with t e d L. B. Introduction to a problem of decision-making in medicine, the lane with English, M., 1971.

B. D. Landa.