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OPISTHOTONOS (Greek opisthen back + tonos tension) — the convulsive pose caused by tonic contraction of muscles of a back and neck with a zaprokidyvaniye of the head, a pulling of extremities, sometimes spastic pressing of hands to a breast. At O. in situation on spin the body of the patient is curved in the form of an arch with a support only on a nape and heels (fig).

the Characteristic pose of the patient in an opisthotonos.

The lake results from muscular rigidity — sharp increase in a tone of extensor muscles of a back, a neck, legs, and sometimes and hands. In an experiment on animal O. it is observed at section of a brain trunk lower than the level a chetverokholmiya and red kernels, but above vestibular nuclei (see. Decerebration ). The lake is carried out by a reticular formation and vestibular nuclei in reticulospinal and vestibu-losiinalny ways. At destruction of a cerebellum of O. amplifies, and after destruction of a tonic zone of a reticular formation and vestibular nuclei stops. In O.'s origin play a role and cortical and trunk ways, in particular ways from a motive zone of a cerebral cortex to a «suppressor» zone of a reticular formation.

The lake arises at patol, processes on average a brain and the bridge or in close proximity to a basal surface of this department of a trunk, at tumors of a back cranial pole, the IV ventricle, at injuries and pia-arachnites, accumulations of blood and pus in basal tanks, at a leukodystrophy of trunk localization, tetanus. Sometimes O. is observed at so-called cerebral palsy. Periodically arising O. at occlusion of a water supply system of a brain is a terrible symptom of the beginning prelum of a brainstem. Trunk epileptic seizures but to type O are described. Hysterical O. is observed seldom. At O. which were earlier considered as functional reveal organic nevrol, symptomatology though it is impossible to exclude also funkts.tormozheniye of the relevant structures of a brain.

Treatment depends on the nature of the process which is the cornerstone of O. Primenyayut symptomatic means, and sometimes according to vital indications, perform the immediate neurosurgical surgeries.

Bibliography: V about j t and V. Die cerebralen Bewegungsstorungen im Sauglingsalter, Friihdiagnose und Friihtherapie, Stuttgart, 1976.

L. A. Kukuyev.