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LACTOBACILLI (synonym lactobacilli) — the gram-positive rhabdoid bacteria relating to the sort Lactobacillus (Beijerinck, 1901), this. Lactobacillaceae.

Cells of some types of lactobacilli, bouillon culture (96 hours): 1 — L. acidophilus; 2 — L. fermenti; 3 — L. plantarum; 4 — L. casei; 5 — L.buchneri; 6 — L. brevis; X 1680.

M. are presented by sticks varied in form: from short kokkoobrazny to long threadlike (fig.). Length of cells at various cultures of the same types depends on structure of the environment, presence of oxygen, a way of an incubation. M. would breed. division by a partition that leads to catenation. Ultrathin structure of the cells of M. it is in many respects similar to other gram-positive bacteria. On agarizovanny environments form small colonies.

M. have no the respiratory systems containing cytochrome, are not mobile, do not form a catalase, do not recover nitrates in nitrites, do not liquefy to gelatin, do not form a dispute and a pigment; strict anaerobe bacterias or optional. Have the proteolytic activity caused by effect of proteases and peptidases, have no lipolytic activity. An energy source for M. is lactic fermentation (see). M. divide on gomofermentativny, forming as a result of fermentation of carbohydrates up to 90% milk to - you, and also minute quantities flying to - t, alcohol and carbonic acid, and heteroenzymatic, forming apprx. 50% milk to - you, 25% of CO 2 , 25% acetic to - you and alcohol.

M.'s systematics. finally it is not developed. The Determinant of bacteria of Berdzhi (Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1974) in the sort Lactobacillus included 25 types. Difficulty of classification consists in variability of many properties of these microorganisms at cultivation on different environments and in different conditions. The research of nucleotide composition of DNA showed that the content of guanine and a tsitozin in DNA of different types of M. variously also lies ranging from 34,2 to 53,4 pier. %.

Antigenic properties are studied insufficiently; tentative data about availability of antigens, general for many types of M. are obtained.

M. are exacting to power supplies, do not grow on simple environments; grow on the Wednesdays containing vegetable broths, meat and yeastrels, proteinaceous a hydra lysates since M. need amino acids, vitamins and a number of inorganic compounds; pH of environments within 5,0 — 6,5, an optimum of pH 5,5. M. can grow at pH 3,8 below. For M.'s cultivation. the environment of the Reed mace or its modification is widely applied. A temperature schedule from 15 to 45 ° depending on types.

M. meet in the soil, concentrating around root system, on cultivated and wild plants, in went. - kish. path of hematothermal animals and birds, insects. Are found in the person throughout went. - kish. a path — from an oral cavity to a rectum. M. representatives. (behind the few exception) not pathogens for the person. The most characteristic are L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. salivarius, L. fermenti and L. brevis. L. bifidus in Determinant of bacteria of Berdzhi (1974) is allocated in the separate sort Bifidobacterium (see. Bifidobacteria ).

M. apply in bread baking, in the milk industry, in biol. conservation of many products (fermentation of vegetables and fruit), preparation of kvass, siloing. For prevention and treatment went. - kish. diseases, avitaminosis and alimentary anemias at animals use drugs, M. also are a part to-rykh.

I. I. Mechnikov would point to M. as on antagonists of the putrefactive and pathogenic microbes living in an intestinal path of the person also suggested to apply them in fight against intestinal dysfunctions and a presenility. Many people apply fermented milk products to treatment of burns and wounds, for prevention and treatment went. - kish. diseases.

Development of microbiology expanded range of application of these microorganisms: by means of M. in the industry receive milk to - that, use for synthesis of the dextran applied in medicine as partial blood substitute; a number of the antibiotics produced by these microbes is revealed; would use M. during creation of products of baby food, including applied with to lay down. - professional, the purpose at newborns. Acidophilic paste is used in an obstetric ginekol. to practice, dermatology and surgery. L. acidophilus bifidum and E enter along with V. coli in composition of complex drug of the «omniflor» used abroad for treatment of intestinal frustration. In our country is issued laktobakterin (see), an effective agent to-rogo are the lyophilized bacteria of strains of L. fermenti 90T-C4 and L. plantarum 8R-AZ, having high antagonistic activity concerning causative agents of dysentery, enteropathogenic colibacilli, staphylococcus, a protea, and bifidumbacterium (see).

See also Bulgarian stick .

Bibliography: Erzinkyan L. A. Biological features of some lactobacilli, Yerevan, 1971; Kvasnikov E, I. and Nesterenko O. A. Lactobacilli and ways of their use, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Krasilnikov N. A. Determinant of bacteria and actinomycetes, page 208, M. — L., 1949; The M e h N and to about in I. I. Academic collected works, t. 15, page 247, M., 1962; The guide to vaccinal and serumal business, under the editorship of P. N. Burgasov, page 94, M., 1978; Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. E. Buchanan a. N. E. Gibbons, Baltimore, 1975; L e r with h e M. u. R e u t e r G. Das Yorkommen aerob wachsender grampositiver Stabchen des Genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck im Darmin-halterwachsener Menschen, Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig., Bd 185, S. 446, 1962; R o g o s a M., Mitchell J. A. a. Wiseman R. F. A selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of oral lactobacilli, J. dent. Res., v. 30, p. 682, 1951.

G. I. Goncharova.