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KIRLIAN EFFECT (S. D. Kirlian; Century of X. Kirlian) — a luminescence of live and lifeless objects at impact on them of a pulse high-frequency discharge.

Fig. 1. The scheme of obtaining the image in the pulse high-voltage category (from above — unilateral, below — bilateral obtaining images): 1 — the subject; 2 — a photographic material — the layer of an emulsion (is shaded) turned towards an object; 3 — electrodes; 4 — the pulse high-voltage generator; 5 — digit (interelectrode) space.

To. aa. it was found in the USSR by spouses S. D. and V. of X. Kirlian in 1949. On the basis of this effect they offered a method of observation and photography of live and lifeless objects. The essence of a method consists in the following: between two facings of the condenser (electrodes) place the studied object and a photographic material (the emulsion party to an object) so that between them the air gap (fig. 1) remains. If on electrodes to give for a short time (less than 1 sec.) the high-frequency high-voltage tension capable to cause electric discharge in the air gap (tension of the field within 3•10 6 — 3•10 7 in oil), on a photoemulsion will arise the image of an object revealed at usual processing of a photographic material. Further improvement of a method allowed to make observations directly at the time of the category, using optically transparent facings, and also by means of a microscope. During the studying biol, objects began to apply the electron-beam tubes which are specially adapted for these purposes.

The mechanism of formation and transfer of the image of an object on a photographic material is up to the end not clear. There are two points of view on the nature To. aa. It agrees one of them To. aa. it is connected with autoelectronic issue of an object (from an object), on another — with an ionic conduction of gas and dielectric properties of nonmetallic objects.

Fig. 2. The leaf of a Canadian pondweed photographed in the pulse high-voltage category: 1 — is normal (a svezhesorvanny leaf); 2 — after influence by formalin; 3 — after influence of high temperature.
Fig. 3. Electrophoto of a finger of foot at rest (1) and exercise stress (2): it is visible that the exercise stress leads to strengthening of intensity of a luminescence

To. aa. as the method is represented perspective for studying and diagnosis of various diseases as has a certain specificity, high sensitivity and gives the chance rather accurately to distinguish live and dead objects; it is possible to establish extent of influence of toxicants, various physical. factors on live organisms, degree of viability, «fatigue» etc. (fig. 2, 3).

Photography of skin of the person (on to Ged's zones ) using the photographic material giving the image in color reveals differences in intensity and coloring of various zones. So, areas of heart there corresponds intensive blue light, areas of a forearm — greenish-blue, to area of a hip — olive. Also communication between an emotional condition of the person and intensity of a luminescence of a surface of skin of finger-tips comes to light: in wild spirits drawing indistinct. Depending on time of day, meteorol, conditions, a subjective state various sites of face skin of the person in the gas discharge shine with different intensity; a luminescence of points of acupuncture, much more intensively, than a luminescence of skin in other places.

The gas discharge is followed by formation of ozone, powerful ultraviolet radiation, and also ultrasonic fluctuations. At the same time the studied surface is affected by ions and electrons with energy to 20 ev. All this demands statement of special experiments on clarification of effects of influence To. aa. on a body of interest and the experimenter.

To. aa. it is intensively investigated in a number of laboratories in our country and abroad. A main objective of these researches is development of new methods of intravital studying various biol, objects (bacteria, one-celled and metaphytes), psikhofiziol. researches of the person in various conditions of his life activity, creation of new methods of treatment etc.

Bibliography: Adamenko V. G. About a research of biological objects in high-frequency electric fields, in book: Vopr, bio-energetics, under the editorship of B. A. Dombrovsky, etc., page 19, Alma-Ata, 1969; Ivanov E. V., Sh e with t of e r and I. S. and Telitchenko M. M. N. About the mechanism of obtaining the image in the pulse high-voltage category, Biol, sciences, t. 14, M 6, page 133, 1971; Ivanov E. V. and d river. About a luminescence of biological objects in the pulse high-voltage category, in book: Superweak luminescences in biol., under the editorship of A. I. Zhuravlev, page 109, M., 1972; Kirlian S. D. and To and r l and and V.'s N of X. Photography and sighting at means of currents of high frequency, Zhurn. nauch. uses photo and cinematographies, t. 6, century 6, page 397, 1961.

E. V. Ivanov