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IONIZATION (the Greek ion going) — process of transformation of neutral atoms (molecules) of substance into electrically charged particles — ions. And. results from a separation of one or several electrons from an electron shell of atom or accession to it of excess electrons. In the first case are formed positive, in the second — negative ions. And. arises at influence light (see), and also ionizing radiation; in solutions I. occurs owing to electrolytic dissociation (see. Electrolytes ). In biol, fabrics I. causes various changes (see. Ionizing radiation, biological effect ), which can lead to development radial illness (see).

And. it is characterized by volume or linear density — number of couples of ions formed in unit volume or on unit of a way. This size depends on properties of substance, a charge and energy of an ionizing particle.

Phenomenon And. in gases it is used in dosimetry of ionizing radiation (see) is also the cornerstone of the device of a number of radiation monitoring instruments, to-rymi widely use in a wedge, practice. On And. solutions the method of an ionogalvanization used in physical therapy is based (see. Electrophoresis ). Degree And. and ionic structure are among parameters a gigabyte. estimates of the air environment (see. Aeroionization ).

V. A. Balitskii.