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The DRUGGIST (the Greek pharmakeutes preparing curative medicines, drugs) — the specialist with the higher or secondary pharmaceutical education having the right to be engaged in pharmaceutical activity.

The list of educational institutions, the termination to-rykh grants the right to be engaged in pharmaceutical activity, is defined by the orders M3 of the USSR. Besides, also the persons who did not gain special preparation and knowledge in the relevant average special educational institutions of the USSR, but working in such positions till October 1, 1972 are allowed to work in positions of average pharmaceutical personnel.

In Russia three pharmaceutical degrees were established by «Rules about examinations of medical, veterinary and pharmaceutical officials» (1838): pharmaceutical

assistant (ryagtasoroyoiz auxiliaris), pharmacist (pharmacopoen substitutus) and druggist (pharmacopo-ens). In 1845 instead of degree the druggist was entered the highest pharmaceutical degree — the master of pharmacy. The right to award these degrees after the corresponding examinations was granted to high fur boots and VMA. The Russian high fur boots and the state high fur boots of the USSR held exams and issued diplomas about assignment of the specified ranks till December 1, 1924.

The rank farkhmatsevt was established by the resolution In the CEC and SNK RSFSR of December 1, 1924 for all persons who are engaged in pharmaceutical practice. The resolution SNK USSR of September 8, 1936 provided to carry out preparation F. the top skills (pharmacists) in pharmaceutical in-ta (see the Pharmacist, Pharmaceutical education) i, and preparation F. average qualification (assistants to pharmacists) — at pharmaceutical schools (further — schools). Since the beginning of the 60th qualification of the druggist is appropriated to graduates of pharmaceutical schools.

According to the WHO classification (1978), the profession of the druggist is appropriated to the persons who graduated on pharmaceutical f-takh of high fur boots and at pharmaceutical schools. It grants the right to work in drugstores, hospitals, laboratories, at the enterprises of pharmaceutical industry etc. Specialty the assistant to the druggist (secondary special education) grants the right to work in drugstores, hospitals, out-patient clinics under control F.

According to the national data relating to 1974 — 1977 given in the Year-book of world sanitary statistics (1982), in 142 countries (without the USSR) the St. 636 thousand druggists worked with the higher and secondary education (druggists, assistants to druggists, pharmacists, druggists-trainees, druggists-laboratory assistants, bachelors of pharmacy, druggists, etc.). In the nek-ry countries (China, India, Brazil, Lebanon, Greece, Norway, etc.) data on number F. are not brought or T. are included in number of doctors.

In the USSR in 1983 in pharmaceutical institutions of the USSR M3 system worked apprx. 230 thousand specialists with the higher and secondary pharmaceutical education.

For specialization and improvement F. with the higher education the uniform state system of preparation at institutes of improvement of doctors (see), on f-takh improvements and specializations of pharmacists, and also on advanced training courses and specialization is created at medical and pharmaceutical higher educational institutions. Improvement F. with secondary education it is made on the special courses organized for various categories of pharmaceutical workers at pharmaceutical schools. The pharmacists having length of service

not less than 5 years have the right to undergo certification for the purpose of assignment of the highest, the first or second qualified categories, T. with secondary education — the first category.

T. directly busy production, packaging and control of pharmaceuticals, in drugstores in connection with harmful working conditions established the reduced (6-hour) working day (at six-day working week) and additional

issue lasting 6 working days, and also nek-ry other privileges.

According to «Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care» (see the Legislation on health care, t. 20, milk, materials) F. are obliged to render in case of need the first medical aid and to observe a medical secret.

Bibliography: Year-book of world sanitary statistics, 1978, t, 3. Personnel of health care and medical institutions, Geneva, WHO, 1982; Health care in the years of recovery and socialist reconstruction of the national economy of the USSR 1925 — 1940, the Collection of documents and materials, under the editorship of M. I. Barsukov, etc., page 251, M., 1973; The collection

of regulations on pharmaceutical service, under the editorship of M. A. Klyuev, page 280, M., 1979; The Reference book of the base leading materials on pharmaceutical business, under the editorship of A. M. Ste-tsyuk, page 491, M., 1954. V. P. Lapin.