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DIOKTOFIMOZ (dioctophymosis) — the helminthosis from group of nematodoses which is characterized by damage of urinary tract.

Fig. 1. Dioctophyme renale — a svaynik-giant. Head end: spherical suckers are visible. It is increased.
Fig. 2. Dioctophyme renale. The tail end of a male with a bursa and a long spicule (a firm skeletal element). It is increased.

At the person isolated cases in the USSR, Bulgaria, Romania, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Brazil are described. The activator D. — round Dioctophyme renale helminth (Goeze, 1782), Stiles, 1901 — the svaynik-giant in a stage of puberty parasitizing in a renal pelvis, ureters, a bladder, an urethra of a dog, wild predatory mammals, sometimes at cattle of a horse and is very rare at the person. Helminth of blood-red color; female 20 — 100 cm long, 5 — 12 mm wide, male respectively 14 — 40 cm and 4 — 7 mm; eggs of 0,064 in size — 0,083 X 0,040 — 0,047 mm, an ellipsoidal form, with the thick cover of yellowy-brown color covered with semicircular impressions. The head end has it several spherical suckers (fig. 1), and tail — a bursa and a spicule (fig. 2).

The intermediate owner of a svaynika-giant — an oligokhet (a maloshchetinkovy worm) of Lumbriculus variegatus; reservoir owners of helminth — fishes (an ide, etc.). The dogs infected with D. and other definitivny owners allocate with urine of D. renale egg. In 1 month after hit of eggs the larvae getting into maloshchetinkovy worms develop in water in them. Fishes catch these worms at food. D.'s infection the person and mammals happens at consumption of crude fish to larvae of helminth and at an accidental proglatyvaniye of infested oligokht, napr, during the bathing or drink from standing and slowly current reservoirs. After migration of a larva of D. renale reach a renal pelvis and occasionally other bodies.

At the heart of D.'s pathogeny — toksiko-allergic reactions and the mechanical influence of helminths leading to an atrophy of tissues of kidneys. At D. the phenomena of renal colic, subfebrile temperature, pains in lumbar area, symptoms are observed pyelitis (see), urethritis (see), cystitis (see); in urine — impurity of slime and blood. The diagnosis is made on the basis of detection in urine of D. renale eggs. Helminths delete from a renal pelvis in the operational way; further carry out treatment of renal frustration. The forecast is sometimes extremely serious.

Prevention: it is necessary to eat only carefully thermally processed and well salted fish; to drink water from standing and slowly current reservoirs only after boiling or filtering through a canvas.

See also Nematodoses .

Bibliography: Karmanova E. M. Interpretation of a development cycle of Dioctophyme renale, Medical parazitol., t. 32, century 3, page 331, 1963; The Multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of H. N. Zhukova-Verezhnikov, t. 9, page 657, M., 1968.

H. N. Plotnikov.