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HYMUS (Greek chymos juice) — the semi-fluid contents of a small bowel representing mix of the food contents of a stomach which came to it with pancreatic and intestinal juice, and also with bile.

1 — 2 l of bile, to 2 l of pancreatic juice and apprx. 2 l of intestinal juice comes per day to a duodenum apprx. 4 — 6 l of gastric contents (sometimes it is called a gastric chyme). However from a small bowel in thick for the same time term passes apprx.

4 l of the chyme which is almost deprived of substances, valuable to an organism and available to absorption.

The quantity and structure of a chyme depend on a look and amount of the eaten food, quantity and properties of the secrets of digestive glands, digestion of nutrients allocated in a gut, absorption of products of their hydrolysis, water, mineral salts and other components of a chyme.

Normal in a duodenum at the expense of the varying ratios between come to a gut acid contents of a stomach and neutral or alkalescent pancreatic, intestinal secrets and pH bile of a chyme is in limits 4,0 — 8,0, and throughout almost all lean and podvzdosh-


ache guts — 6,5 — 7,5. Change of pH is connected with disturbance of ratios of secrets, acceleration of gastric evacuation and duodenal transit of a chyme. Motor activity of a gut (see the Peristaltics) assists homogenization of a chyme, its advance in the distal direction, change of a pristenochny layer and to improvement of contact with a mucous membrane of a small bowel.

The chyme is an object and the environment of band digestion (see). Enzymes of secrets of a pancreas (see) and a small bowel (see Intestines) as a part of a chyme provide hydrolysis of polymers of food to dipeptides, disaccharides etc., to-rye come to a zone of pristenochny digestion (see) where there is an afterhydrolysis of products of band digestion and their absorption (see). In change physical. - chemical properties of lipids of a chyme the big role is played by bile (see).

Normal processes of hydrolysis and nutritive absorption most actively proceed in an upper third of a small bowel and, therefore, in this department of a gut there is the most essential change of structure of a chyme. In more distally the located departments of a small bowel the structure of a chyme is defined by a resorption of its components.

Structure of a chyme, its physical. - chemical properties, in turn, influence processes of digestion, change secretory, motor and resorptive activity went. - kish. path. Depending on pH of a chyme the different amount of secretin is released (see); the amount of the hole-tsistokinin-pancreozymin released by endocrine cells of a gut (see Secretion) depends on contents in a chyme of hydrolysates of proteins and fats, defines quantity and composition of pancreatic juice, regulates a zhelchevydeleniye (see). Depending on properties of a chyme neurohumoral correction of secretion of glands of a mucous membrane of a stomach and it motor-but-evakuatornoy activity is carried out (see the Stomach). The mechanical irritation of a mucous membrane of a small bowel contents of a hikhmus increases its motility, secretion and the movements of fibers, significantly influences the speed of absorption. Motility, secretion and absorption in a small bowel are increased by products of a proteopepsis and fats, pancreatic enzymes, etc. Pancreatic enzymes of a chyme slow down secretion of a pancreas. The realization of regulatory effects of a chyme is enabled by means of the reflex arcs which are becoming isolated at the level of c. N of page and peripheral gangliyev, by means of intestinal hormones, and also neposredst

wine influence of components of a chyme on band, pristenochny digestion and absorption.

Bibliography: Korotko G. F. Gastric digestion, its functional organization and a role in the digestive conveyor, Tashkent, 1980; Smirnov K. V. and Ugolev A. M. Space gastroenterology, Trofologiche-sky sketches, page 15, M., 1981; Physiology of absorption, under the editorship of. And. M. Ugoleva, etc., L., 1977; Physiology of digestion, under the editorship of A. V. Solovyov, etc., L., 1974.

G.F. Korotko.