From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ZIMBABWE, the republic of Zimbabwe — the state in South Africa (till 1979 — Southern Rhodesia). The area is 390,2 thousand km 2 . Population of 7,2 million people (1979). The capital — Harare (till April, 1981 — Salisbury, 616 thousand zhit., 1978). Administrative division — 5 provinces. Ofits. language — English.


3. — the sovereign republic (since April 18, 1980). Head of the state president. Legislature — the parliament consisting of the senate and chamber of a meeting (100 deputies, from them 80 are elected by the African population, 20 — European). Independence was won as a result of the fight combining the peace and armed methods, national and democratic forces under the leadership of the Patriotic Zimbabwe front with broad international support.

The most part of the territory of the country is occupied by Matabele and Mashon 800 — 1500 m high plateaus above sea-level; the greatest height is 2596 m (mountain Inyangani). On S. the plateau goes down to the valley of the Zambezi River, on Yu. to the valley of the Limpopo River. On the plateau savannas are most eurysynusic. In a northern part of the country climate subequatorial, in southern — tropical.

Economy 3. rather developed. The main commodity page - x. products (wheat, cotton, tobacco, a citrus, beef, etc.) are made on farms of white settlers, the Crimea till 1980 a half of the best lands belonged. The government of the African majority which came to the power carries out radical restructurings in national economy, and including in agriculture.

The leading place in ore mining industry is taken by extraction of chromium and iron ore, black coal, asbestos, copper, nickel, gold, silver, etc. Manufacturing industry is presented by metallurgical, chemical, coke-chemical and other companies.

St. 95% of the population make the African people, hl. obr. groups to a bow (mashona, to the matabela, etc.). Persons of the European origin of 260 thousand people (1978). Average population density 17 people on 1 sq.km (1977).

The natural movement of the population in 1979, on incomplete ofitsa. to the data provided in editions of WHO and the UN it was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 47, general mortality 14, natural increase 33. Child mortality — 121 on 1000 live-born. Similar indicators for the white population (on 1000 people): birth rate 12,9, general mortality 8,2; child mortality 16,8 for 1000 live-born (1977). Average life expectancy for all population makes 49,8 years at men and women have 53,3 years, among persons of the European origin respectively 66,9 and 74 years (1975). Specific weight of the population up to 15 years — 47%, is more senior than 65 years — 3% (1979).

Data of ofitsa. statistics concerning incidence are extremely limited. The main form of pathology of the African population are infectious and parasitic diseases, a wide spread occurance to-rykh is caused by the severe social and economic conditions which are a consequence of policy of racial discrimination. Among the African population are widespread went. - kish. infectious diseases, tuberculosis, leprosy, poliomyelitis, trachoma, etc. In 1974 and 1975 in the country the outbreaks of plague were registered. According to WHO data, in 1977 97,5% of the population lived in a zone of spread of malaria (tropical malaria prevails), and 96,8% of the population lived in districts where antimalarial events were not held. Among the indigenous African people the diseases connected with a lack of full-fledged food stuffs are widespread. In especially severe conditions there are groups of refugees and displaced persons.

Hospital help to the population in 1978 was given by 758 medical institutions (state and belonging to the private industrial enterprises) on 20 030 beds (26,6 beds on 10 000 zhit.), from them 12 BCs of the general type (5908 beds), 67 rural BCs (8108 beds), 676 medical centers (5189 beds), 1 pediatric-tsa (220 beds), 1 psychiatric-tsa (505 beds) and 1-tsa for treatment of patients with a leprosy (100 beds). The extra hospital help appears out-patient departments of BC and the medical centers. (Name and content of work of healthcare institutions 3. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad .)

In 1976 in the country 919 doctors worked (1,41 on 10 000 Zhit.), 6908 nurses and midwifes, 1943 assistants to the nurse (midwife), apprx. 200 dentists and dental technicians, St. 300 druggists.

Training of doctors is carried out on medical f-those un-that (Harare); on the basis of BC (Harare and Bulawayo) train nurses and midwifes.

In the 70th the aggravation of symptoms of health of the population is noted that it is connected with the reduction of healthcare institutions caused by effects of long armed struggle of the indigenous African people against domination of white minority.

After a gain of independence elimination of all forms of a racial segregation in health care, providing medical - a dignity became the most important task of bodies of health care. the help of the African population, first of all in rural districts of the country. Recovery destroyed is conducted and construction of new rural BCs and medical centers, is intensively carried out training of health care, including workers primary medical - a dignity. the help, the program of immunization of children against measles, tuberculosis, diphtheria and other infections is developed. In the first year of independence in the country free medical support was entered.

Bibliography: Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 297, M., 1981; Africa South of the Sahara 1980 — 1981, p. 1189, L., 1980; Weekly Epidemiological Record, No. 27, p. 206, 1980, No. 21, p. 166, No. 35, p. 274, 1981; World health statistics annual 1980, p. 2 a. o., Geneva, 1980.

V. V. Fedorov.