ZAIRE, Republic Zaire — the state in the Central Africa. The area is 2345,4 thousand km 2 , population of 24,9 million people (1975). The capital — Kinshasa (2,0 million zhit., 1974). In the administrative relation 3. it is divided into 9 provinces. Ofits. French.
3. — former colony of Belgium. Independence is declared in 1960. From 1964 to 1971 3. was called the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The head of state and the governments — the president. The supreme body of legislature — the National Legislative Council (unicameral parliament). Governors, in the cities and city communes — burgomasters are at the head of provinces.
Relief 3. flat. On V. the country is bordered with a belt of sandstone plateaus 500 — 1000 m high. The main waterway of the country — the river of Congo (Zaire), 4320 km long. Central and sowing. parts 3. are covered with rainforests, in yuzh. districts the savanna prevails. Climate 3. equatorial and tropical monsoons.
3. — the agrarian country, more than 75% of the population are engaged in page - x. production. The main pages - x. cultures — corn, millet, an ambercane, rice. The important place is taken by plantations of oily palm trees, cocoa, coffee, cotton, rubber-bearing trees.
3. it is rich with minerals (copper, diamonds, gold). Also iron, uranium, radium, lead, cobalt, tin is extracted. In the country generally mining and processing industries are developed.
Population 3. consists of 4 basic ethnic groups: to a bow, nilotsky, Sudanese and pygmies. The natural movement of the population in 1970 — 1975 was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 45,2, mortality 20,5, natural increase 24,7. Child mortality 104 on 1000 live-born.
In structure of incidence of the population 3. infectious and parasitic diseases prevail: tuberculosis, bacillar dysentery, infectious hepatitis. Malaria is endemic in all districts, the located lower than 1500 m above sea-level. Ankilostomidoza, an amebiasis, etc. are widespread an onchocercosis, vukhererioz, akantokheylonematoz, intestinal p urinogenital Shistosomatoza.
In 1974 in 3. 1627 cases of typhus and a paratyphoid, 3217 — bacillar dysentery, 5758 — infectious hepatitis were registered. In 1975 — 144 635 cases of flu. Among children's infections measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, epidemic parotitis, acute poliomyelitis prevail.
In 1973 in 3. was 1386 to lay down. institutions on 72 090 beds (1 bed on 327 zhit.), including 315 BCs of the general type (71,3% of beds), 17 tubercular (3,2% of beds), 4 psychiatric (0,9% of beds), 32 another specialized-tsy (1% of beds); 830 rural BCs (11,5% of beds) and 188 centers of health care (12,1% of beds). From the general bed fund apprx. 50% belongs to the state.
In 1973 in the country 818 doctors (1 doctor for 28 802 inhabitants), 106 assistants to doctors, 22 dentists, 131 druggists, 210 midwifes, 1361 assistants to the midwife, 1682 nurses and 7795 assistants to nurses worked.
Preparation of medical shots is carried out on medical f-those National un-that Zaire in Kinshasa. Here train X-ray technicians, hospital administrators, nurses. Ying t of medical education in Kinshasa trains druggists, nurses and assistants to nurses, plumbers and assistants to plumbers.
Bibliography: Research on medical geography, under the editorship of A. G. Voronov, etc., page 49, M., 1973; Annuaire de statists ques sanitaires mondiales 1970, t. 2, p. 16, Geneve, 1974; Rapport de statisti-ques sanitaires mondiales, t. 26, p. 138, 150, Geneve, 1973.