YUGOSLAVIA

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

YUGOSLAVIA, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, SFRYu — the state in the southeast of Europe, is located in a northwest and central part of the Balkan Peninsula, in the basin of Danube. On 3. it is washed by waters of the Adriatic Sea. The area is 255,8 thousand sq.km. Population of 22,85 million people (1984). The capital — Belgrade (1,5 million inhabitants with suburbs, 1982).

BB. — the federation consisting of 6 socialist republics (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro) and two socialist autonomous regions (Vojvodina and Kosovo) as a part of Serbia.

BB. — socialist state. The supreme authority and public self-government in federation is the Skupstina of SFRYu (parliament) elected for 4 years consisting of 2 chambers — the Allied vech and the republics Vecha and regions. The supreme body of the management — Presidium of SFRYu, the chairman to-rogo executes functions of the head of state. Skupstina of SFRYu chooses the Allied executive veche — the government of SFRYu. In the republics and autonomous regions there are the Skupstina, presidiums and executive a vecha (government). By the leading ideological and political force of working class and all workers Yu. the Union of communists of Yugoslavia is.

BB. actively participates in the Non-Aligned Movement. She was one of initiators of holding of conferences of heads of state and government of the non-aligned countries. BB. supports deepening of a discharge, its distribution on all regions of the world and area of the international cooperation. The relations of SFRYu with the USSR and others socialist



mi the countries are characterized by broad cooperation in various areas. Since September, 1964 Yugoslavia participates in work of a number of bodies of SEV. For years of socialist construction in Yugoslavia radical social and economic restructurings were carried out; from the agrarian country Yu. turned into industrialnoagrarny. The constitution of 1974 reflected and legislatively fixed socialist gains of workers.

Industrial output in 1984 increased for 6,0%, labor productivity increased by 2,8%. In 1984 in agriculture it was engaged apprx. 32% of joint stock company


of the tivny population. In comparison with 1983 the volume of agricultural production grew by 2,5% (in the public sector for 4%).

Natural movement of the population. As a part of the population Serbians, Croats, Slovenes, Macedonians, Montenegrins prevail; also Albanians, Hungarians, Romanians, Turks, etc. live. Social and economic achievements led to a number of demographic shifts (tab). Decrease in an indicator of birth rate is characteristic of the country a nek-swarm with a small growth of the general mortality, steady decrease in child mortality.

The average duration of the forthcoming life in 1979 was for men 67,8 years, for women 73,2 years.

Incidence and causes of death of the population. Level and structure of incidence and mortality spetsi-


fichna for industrialized countries. Among diseases acute respiratory diseases, chronic diseases of a respiratory organs, digestion, blood circulation, a nervous system and sense bodys, etc. are most widespread. Among the leading causes of death of the population malignant tumors, injuries, diseases of a respiratory organs prevail a heart trouble and vessels.

Specific weight of mortality from cardiovascular diseases for 1971 — 1980 increased from 32,9 to 49,5%; from malignant new growths — from 11,6 to 14,5%; from accidents decreased from 7,5 to 5,2%.

V Yu. considerable success in fight with inf is achieved. diseases, eurysynusic in the past. Rates of mortality from infectious and parasitic diseases for 1971 — 1980 decreased with 32 to 17,4 by 100 thousand inhabitants. For the post-war period incidence of intestinal infections, tuberculosis sharply decreased, natural smallpox, trachoma, malaria were liquidated. In 1981 the following quantity of cases of infectious diseases was registered: a typhoid and paratyphus — 309, a salmonellosis — 5604, dysentery — 7055, other intestinal infections — 56 149; tuberculosis (all forms) — 16 745, whooping cough — 4593, a meningococcal infection — 617, tetanus — 112, meningitis of the enteroviral nature — 4967, measles — 20 878, a viral hepatitis — 32 627, fresh cases of syphilis — 579 and gonorrhoeas — 10 004.

Organization of health care. The central administrative body of health care of Yugoslavia — Allied Healthcare Committee, to work and social security which chairman is a member of the Federal executive vech (government).

As a part of Allied committee there are a public health department, the main sanitary inspectorate, management of pharmaceutical service and medical supply. Questions of health care in the republics and autonomous regions the secretariats of health care and social security know. These public authorities are responsible for implementation in practice of the actions in the field of public health care provided by laws and regulations of the country. According to the Constitution of 1974 responsibility for public health care lies on appropriate authorities of federation, the republics, areas and communities which define the main directions in development of health care in territories subordinated to them, the principles and methods of the organization medical - a dignity. the help to the population, including trainings, will organize supervision and control a sanitary condition of territories and objects.

Directly medical institutions (out-patient clinics, policlinics, hospitals, clinics, etc.) which function as independent links of a health system are engaged in treatment-and-prophylactic work. Self-government of these institutions is guaranteed by the Constitution, and activity is coordinated by laws of federation and the republics.

In areas and communities there are centers of health care performing organizational and methodical and controlling functions concerning medical institutions: they monitor activity of healthcare institutions, study the state of health of the population, a working condition and life, food and implementation of actions for environmental control, develop programs of actions for development of health care and direct them to the approval by Skupstina of a community (area). At the centers of health care there are committees of specialists and representatives of the public who participate in consideration and implementation of programs of health care. Thus, the self-controlled activity of treatment and prevention facilities (their councils, committees of board and management) is under constant control of state bodies and the public (questions of planning, financing, etc.).

Since January, 1971 in Yu. became effective the law on obligatory social insurance which extends to all population (including the peasantry).

Stationary help. During the post-war period the quantity stationary steadily increased to lay down. - the prof. of institutions. The number of hospital beds increased from 51 thousand in 1950 to 133,39 thousand in 1980 (59,7 beds by 10 thousand population). From total quantity of beds 88 304 (66,3%) would be in the general profile (from them 14 341 all-therapeutic beds, 14 162 all-surgical, 12 741 obstetric and gynecologic, 9534 pediatric, 4627 infectious, 2065 dermatovenerologic, 1251 oncological, 3570 otolaryngologic, 3413 ophthalmologic, 3303 orthopedic, 6439 tubercular, 1886 psychiatric, 10 972 others), and 6148 (4,6%) was located in the small medical centers. In specialized would be 38 947 (29,1%) beds; the bed fund was distributed as follows: 654 in maternity hospitals, 939 in children's hospitals, 340 in infectious diseases hospitals, 425 in allergological hospitals, 749 in oncological hospitals, 94 in hospitals for occupational diseases, 2804 in orthopedic hospitals, 12 681 in institutions of rehabilitation, 2616 in institutions of physical therapy, balneology and klimatolecheniye, 5904 in tubercular hospitals, 10 508 in insane hospitals, 1233 in another specialized-tsakh. Ambulance and emergency medical service functions.

And h and at yu the help the population in 1976 got extra pain of N in 3923 institutions of primary health care (out-patient clinics, the centers of health, clinics, medical aid stations, etc.), 1165 institutions rendered medical aid to workers on production.

Protection of motherhood and childhood. The security service of health of children included 1131 centers and provided out-patient service of children of preschool age, the service of school hygiene had 623 first-aid posts and provided all types of an ambulatory care to school students. The security service of health of women and mothers included 982 clinics for women.

Spetsializirova of N of N and I am medical aid. Dental service was carried out on the basis of the centers of health and medical aid stations (in only 2673 institutions). V Yu. the network of specialized clinics — antitubercular (460) and oncological is created (60). The security service of mental health had 44 psychiatric and 13 narcological clinics, and also 253 psychiatric offices.

Pharmaceutical business. The pharmaceutical service is presented by network of independent drugstores and drugstores at the centers of health and hospitals (1565 institutions, 1976).

Sanitarno - p r about t and in about-epidemichesk about e service provides network of in-t of public health, and also the centers of health. Enter its tasks prevention inf. diseases and implementation of fight against them, and also actions for environmental control. In 1976 1565 various institutions participated in this industry of health care of the country. Name and content of work of institutions of health care Yu. not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Le-chebno-preventive institutions abroad).

Resorts. V Yu. are available known balneal (Vrnyach - the Bath, Ilidzha, Rogashka-Slati-na) and mountain resorts (Bled). Along the coast and on islands of the Adriatic Sea climatic resorts — Opatiya, Split, Dubrovnik, etc. are located.


Health care workforce. The number of doctors from 1950 to 1981 increased in Yugoslavia with 5138 (3,14 on 10 thousand inhabitants) to 33 444 (14,85 on 10 thousand inhabitants). In 1981 in the country there were 33 444 doctors, 7059 stomatologists (with university education), 371 dentists (without university diploma), 725 assistants to dentists, 5636 dental technicians, 4638 druggists, 4551 assistants to the druggist, 573 midwifes, 7342 nurses-midwifes, 8716 nurses, 56 080 assistants to nurses, 9122 medical laboratory assistant and the equipment, 2429 X-ray technicians, and also 2858 health inspectors (1980) and 6651 pediatric and patronage nurses (1980).

Medical obra z island and N and e. In 1976 in the country was

9 medical, 6 dental and 4 pharmaceutical f-that universities. Total number of students on medical f-takh made 14 493, on dental — 4542 and on pharmaceutical — 2372 persons. Annually the number of the let-out doctors reached St. 1,7 thousand, stomatologists — apprx. 600 and druggists — St. 300 people. In Yugoslavia there were 96 medical schools, in to-rykh more than 34 thousand pupils, and 5 schools for specialization of nurses studied.

Medical science. Scientific research is conducted mainly at medical faculties of high fur boots and in specialized research in-ta. A number of projects was carried out together with WHO (the project on division into districts of health services, the comprehensive program of fight against cardiovascular diseases, etc.).


The table

the NATURAL MOVEMENT of the POPULATION of SFRYu FOR 1972 — 1983 (for 1000 the population)




the Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 402, Geneva, 1981; Health services in Europe, v. 2, p. 221, Copenhagen, 1981; World health statistics annual 1984, Geneva, 1984. V. B. Tsybulsky.

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