YESSENTUKI — balneological, preferential drinking, low-mountain resort in Stavropol Krai in 17 km from Pyatigorsk. Podkumok at the height of 600 — 640 m above sea-level in the steppe area surrounded with heights and mountains is located in the valley of river: Beshtau, Mashuk, etc. From E. the view of Greater Caucasus Range and Elbrus opens.
E. consist of three parts: resort town, former village and industrial part (New Yessentuki). Resort part where most sanatoria and balneol is located. institutions, represents the garden city; with S. and BB. a resort part is adjoined by two big well-planned parks — Medical and Komsomol.
The Yessentuki mineral waters are opened in 1810 by F. P. Gaaz who in the valley of a stream of Kislushki found 3 springs with a sourish salt water; are in detail studied and are for the first time described in 1823 by A. P. Nelyubin. Emergence of the resort belongs to 1839 when the first bathing building with use of water of the Gaazo-Ponomarevsky source was built. Before Great October socialist revolution in the resort sanatoria were not; patients accommodated in private dachas and hotels. With establishment of the Soviet power the majority them was turned into sanatoria and resort boarding houses. After the Great Patriotic War many new sanatoria, resort boarding houses, balnearies, dietetic dining halls, drinking galleries and pump rooms are constructed. The reliable hydromineral base of the resort at the expense of the drilled new wells and streamlining of use of the existing sources is created. E. — one of the largest resorts, on Krom is annually treated apprx. 300 thousand patients.
Climate mountain-steppe with a large number of clear sunny days (280 in a year). The summer warm (in July average monthly t ° 20 °) with big repeatability of hot and dry weather, in separate days air temperature can reach to 37 °. Winter moderately soft (in January t ° — 4 °); the fall is warm, long; the spring is short, in April there is a bystry temperature increase. Rainfall for a year of 512 mm, the greatest number in June (94 mm); the smallest in January (12 mm). Average monthly relative humidity the smallest in August (53%), the greatest in December (79%). Number of hours of sunshine in a year more than 1800.
The main to lay down. factors of the resort — mineral waters, silt mud the Lake Tambukan and climate. The Yessentuki field of mineral waters in modern expanded borders of the resort differs in a big variety of their types. Main wealth E. — carbonic hloridno-hydrocarbonate sodium (the former name «salt and alkaline») the waters of sources No. 4 and No. 17 used for drinking treatment (data of the chemical analysis are provided in the table).
Formula of chemical composition of water of a source No. 4:
Formula of chemical composition of water of a source No. 17:
Near the village Grateful, in 7 — 9 km to S.-V. from E., it is removed and water is operated similar to sources No. 4 and No. 17 on chemical structure thermal (t ° 35,5 — 46 °).
For bathtubs and others balneol. procedures use the following types of waters: 1) carbonic hard currency hydrogen-sulfide water. No. 1:
2) water of the Gaazo-Ponomarevsky source (former name «sulphur-alkaline»):
To bathtubs and drinking treatment apply also sulfate-hydrocarbonate calcium-magnesium waters of a source No. 20:
Water of mineral sources No. 4, 17 and 20 is used also for pouring in bottles. Thermal carbonic water (Yessentuki narzan) a borehole No. a 1-Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region-bis is applied to bathtubs and others balneol. procedures.
Along with drinking treatment, bathtubs and souls water of mineral sources is applied also to washing and irrigation of a stomach and intestines, a duodenal drainage, underwater intestinal washings, an underwater shower massage, inhalations, ginekol, irrigations, etc. (see. Balneoterapiya ).
In the resort carry out mud cure by silnosulfidny highly mineralized silt mud with humidity of 56,6%; composition of mud solution:
Dirt is extracted from the Lake Tambukan which is in 11 km from Pyatigorsk. Apply dirt in the form of mud applications, mud tampons and electromud cure (see. Mud cure ).
Also the dietotherapy, a climatotherapy, mechanotherapy, terrainkur enter complex therapy in the resort.
In the resort sanatoria for adults and children and boarding houses function. All sanatoria and boarding houses are specialized for treatment of patients with diseases went. - kish. path and disbolism. The sanatorium «Communist» is intended for patients with a diabetes mellitus. Ambulatories are treated in the resort policlinic counted on simultaneous treatment of 3500 patients according to vouchers and in all-spa balneofizioterapevtichesky facilities.
Sanatoria and resort policlinic are equipped with necessary medical and diagnostic offices: x-ray, functional diagnosis, and also wedge., biochemical, and other laboratories, departments of physical therapy with balnearies and to lay down. swimming pools, aero sunbeds and klimato-verandahs, offices of LFK, ingalyatoriya, oxygen tents, installations for an aerosol - and electroaerosoltherapies etc. At resort policlinic function also all-resort endoscopic laboratory, allergol. office.
The resort has four drinking galleries and pump rooms No. 1, 4, 17, 20; three bathing buildings («Lower» — on 50 bathtubs, «Upper» — on 90 bathtubs and again built building on 110 bathtubs); all-resort ingalyatoriy, department of mechanotherapy, terrainkur. In the center of the resort, near the park, there is one of the mud baths, largest in the USSR, equipped with «mud» couches, ginekol, chairs and couches for electromud procedures. In the building of mud baths carry out also artificial radonic bathtubs.
The scientific and methodical management to lay down. work in the resort the Pyatigorsk scientific research institute of balneology and physical therapy of M3 of RSFSR, its clinic in E carry out. and basic sanatorium of labor unions «Soviet Miner» of the Yessentuki council for management of resorts of labor unions.
Chronic gastritis, a peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum in a stage of remission or the calming-down aggravation in the absence of insufficiency of motor function of a stomach, tendency to bleedings, a penetration and suspicion on a malignancy; diseases operated (concerning an ulcer) a stomach; hron, colitis and a coloenteritis (except the stenosing and tubercular forms) out of a phase of an aggravation; funkts, diseases of a stomach and intestines; hron, diseases of a liver and bilious ways; the residual phenomena of a viral hepatitis (after the end of the icteric period, in an inactive phase or in a phase of a zatikhaniye of activity); cholelithiasis, except for the forms complicated by an infection and with frequent aggravations, and also the forms demanding an operative measure; dyskinesia of bilious ways and gall bladder; hron, pancreatitis without tendency to frequent aggravations; the periduodenitis, a perihepatitis, perikolit etc. on the soil hron, inflammations (except tubercular), after operations and injuries of an abdominal cavity, except for the forms complicated by purulent process; obesity without the phenomenon of a decompensation of cordial activity; a diabetes mellitus of easy degree and moderately severe (without bent to acidosis); gout and urate diathesis; oksaluriya, fosfaturiya.
In more detail indications, and also contraindications — see. Sanatorium selection, table .
Bibliography: Alexandrov V. P. and Alexandrov I. P. Resort of Yessentuki, Stavropol, 1973; Health resorts of labor unions of the USSR, under the editorship of I. I. Kozlov, page 230, M., 1973; Panteleev I. Ya. The Yessentuki mineral waters and their analogs, in book: Kavkazsk. min. waters, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, page 88, M., 1972; Smirnov-Kamensk E. A., Bloch R. L. and Deryabinav.M. Medicinal mineral waters and their internal use, page 44, M., 1968, bibliogr.