YATROKHIMIYA

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

YaTROHYMIYa (Greek iatros the doctor + chemistry) — the direction in medicine, representatives to-rogo considered chemistry as the main fundamentals of medicine and from these positions explained processes of life activity of a human body in normal and pathological conditions.

Emergence I. it is connected with influence on medicine of alchemy. The idea of use of achievements of alchemy in medicine was proved in works of the Arab and Central Asian scientists of Dzhabira-ibn-Hayana (Gebera, apprx.

721 — apprx. 815), Strike also Ibn-Sina, and from them came to Europe. Alchemical experiences and searches of a philosophers' stone were connected substantially with the aspiration to find universal remedy for treatment of diseases and extension of life.

The doctor and the alchemist Lrnaldo de Vil-lanova (apprx. 1235 — apprx. 1311) in «The Salerno code of health» (see) defined four Aristotelian primary elements in terms of the medical alchemy oriented to a microcosm and replaced the world of metals with other object — humoral pathology of the person. He was engaged in research of means of extension of life, a research of poisons and antidotes and took the first steps in creation of medical alchemy, the cut was a subject of studying not metal, and the person. Treatment of «sick» metals alchemical elixirs was transformed to treatment of the sick person by yatrokhimichesky elixirs.

However original founder I. there was Paracelsus (1493 — 1541), to-ry proclaimed chemistry fundamentals of medicine. Emphasizing need of close connection of medicine with chemistry, Paracelsus spoke about himself: «Really, I yatrokhimik because I know medicine and chemistry». As A. I. Herzen and J. Bernal, Paracelsus noted was the first-ever professor and the founder of chemistry. Fighting against obscurantism, scholasticism and a galenizm, Paracelsus upheld the «chemical» theory of functions of an organism. He claimed that a basis of knowledge is experience and therefore the doctor-researcher shall conduct surely work in chemical laboratory in the new field of medicinal chemistry, using methods of a yatrokhimiya. Thus, it pulled together alchemical art with art of doctoring.

In the theoretical ideas of processes of life activity Paracelsus used alchemical antipodes — sulfur (the beginning of a combustibility) and mercury (the fact that he disappears, without burning down), to the Crimea he added neutral salt (what remains after combustion). He considered that health — harmony of these beginnings, diseases — disturbances of their ratio, and the most important process of life activity — digestion has chemical character and consists in allocation from food of substances, necessary for an organism; disturbance of chemical transformations at digestion and absorption, and also the undigested remains of foodstuff can cause diseases. Along with progressive and in the basis the materialistic idea about the chemical nature of the processes happening in an organism in I. remnants of medieval mysticism remained (the doctrine about «Archean» — the regulating spiritual beginning of an organism, etc.).

Researches in the field of chemistry allowed Paracelsus and other representatives I. to describe an adverse effect on an organism of sulfur, lead, mercury and other substances, to implement chemical diagnostic methods in medical practice and to suggest use with to lay down. the purpose of mineral substances and mineral waters that exerted positive impact on development of pharmacy, pharmaceutical business and balneology.

The direct follower of Paracelsus in the area Ya. there was Y. Wang-Geljmont (1577 — 1644), to-ry sharply criticized his nek-ry theoretical provisions and made an essential contribution to further development of a yatrokhimiya. Y. Wang-Gelmont considered that presence of three alchemical beginnings — mercury, sulfurs and salts as components of compound bodies unprovable experience. It developed the concept of two-element structure of bodies, claiming that all bodies consist of water and gas. Y. Wang-Gelmont one of the first carried out quantitative experience, studied carbon dioxide gas, described ways of its receiving, determined the specific weight of urine at different diseases, from chemical positions described processes of a mocheotdeleniye and digestion, proved the principle, according to Krom «the disease is first of all disturbance of a chemical equilibrium». The doctrine developed by it about existence in «juice» of a live body (in blood, urine, bile, a stomach, intestines) the special beginnings — the «enzymes» participating in various chemical transformations of substance in an organism from one in another is especially considerable. The reasonable orientation of chemical reactions in a live body is provided according to Y. Van-Gelmonta, arkheyam — the «animal spirits» disseminated through separate bodies, but subordinated to main «Archean». Thus, ideas of essence of the reactions happening in a live body to-rye with insignificant reservations accepted all yatrokhimik of 17 — 18 centuries, had dualistic character. However despite their limitation they promoted emergence of biological and medical scientific disciplines, to-rye further received the name of biochemistry and medical chemistry.

Prominent representative I. there was professor Leiden un-that Silvius [F. Sylvius (de 1e of Voyo), 1614 — 1672]. Following generally the doctrine Y. Van-Gelmonta, it exempted it from elements of mysticism. Silvius opened at un-those chemical laboratory. It divided diseases on «acid» and «alkaline» depending on dominance of acid or alkaline condition in a digestive tract. The observant and thoughtful doctor, Silvius in nek-ry works tried to combine provisions Ya. and yatromekhanik. Among numerous pupils of Silvius there were T. Villizy, R. Graaf, Svammerdam (J. Swammerdam, 1637 — 1680). T. Villizy is the largest representative I. in England. His name is connected, first of all, with studying of a structure of a brain and nerves, and also diseases of a nervous system. Among its works, in to-rykh the principles of medicinal therapy are stated from positions Ya., it should be noted «Rational pharmacy» («Pharmaceutice rationalis» 1674 — 1675).

Supporters I. paid special attention to studying of activity of glands of an organism. R. Graaf studied a structure and activity of pancreatic, parotid glands, etc. One of stages of development of a follicle in an ovary is called by his name. Swiss Peyer (J. S. Reuyeg, 1653 — 1712) investigated preferential glands of intestines.

17 — to the beginning of 18 century works of the German yatrokhimik of Vedel (W. Wedel, 1645 — 1721), in particular its «Medical pathology» belong to the second half (Pathologia medica dogmatica», 1692). Pupil Vedelya Shtal (G. E. Stahl, 1659 — 1734) created the idealistic doctrine of animism; as the chemist it was also the author of the doctrine about phlogiston which played in development of chemistry despite the inaccuracy, a positive role. In Shtal's doctrine the mystical, connected with divinity parties I. reached extreme expression. Further, from the middle of 18 century the yatro-chemistry stopped existence as the direction in medicine.

The subsequent outstanding successes of chemistry, in particular discovery of oxygen, an explanation of process of oxidation and in this regard breath, M. V. Lomonosov, J. Priestley, A. Lavoisier, Bertholet's work (S. of L. Bertollet), J. Dalypona, etc., considerably enriched medicine and in many respects defined ways of its development. M. V. Lomonosov's position «The physician without happy knowledge of chemistry cannot be made» found confirmation in development of clinical biochemistry.

Bibliography: History of medicine, under the editorship of B. D. Petrov, t. 1, page 114, M., 1954; With a s-tiglioni A. Storia della medicina, p. 445, 544, Milano, 1927;

Garri-s o n F. H. An introduction to the history of medicine, p. 261, Philadelphia — L., 1960; Geschichte der Medizin, hrsg.

v. A. Mette u. I. Winter, B., 1968.

P.E. Zabludowsky, Yu. A. Shilinis.

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