X-RAY Wilhelm (Rontgen Wilhelm Conrad, 1845 — 1923) — the German physicist experimenter, the founder of school of sciences, the Nobel Prize laureate (1901).
In 1868 graduated from the Higher technical school in Zurich and received degree of the doctor. The assistant in Würzburg (since 1870) and Strasbourg (since 1872) high fur boots. Professor of the Higher agricultural school in Hoenkheym (since 1875), high fur boots in Strasbourg (since 1876), Gisen (since 1879), the Würzburg (since 1888), and since 1894 the rector Munich un-that.
V. Rentgen is the author of fundamental works in various fields of experimental physics. It possesses, in particular, classical researches piezo - and pyroelectric properties of crystals, magnetism, heat capacity of gases, etc. It opened a new type of the beams called by it H-beams and known now as X-ray. On December 28, 1895 he handed to the chairman of the Würzburg draft report, fiziko-medical about-va the manuscript, on this subject made of 17 theses; at the beginning of January, 1896 the brochure on the same question at once translated into the Russian, English, French and Italian languages came out; On January 23, 1896 the public report in scientific took place about-ve; in March, 1896 4 additional theses were published, and in March, 1897 the last message in the form of 11 theses containing the detailed description of properties of X-beams came out. The nature of these beams was open in 1912 as a result of the experiment made by Laue (M. for Laue), W. Friedrich and P. Knipping, to-rye proved by method of diffraction accessory them to short-wave electromagnetic oscillations. Early studies of a human body — x-ray films of own hand and hand of the wife — were made by V. Rentgen, however further he did not begin to develop a problem of medical use of the beams opened for them, having provided it to doctors. He rejected all offers of industrial and trading companies on material remuneration for use of results of its opening and refused patents for the equipment and a method.
In 1897. X-ray was elected the honorary member Ob-va the Russian doctors in St. Petersburg, conferred many awards, honourable diplomas and ranks, in 1901 the first of physicists got the Nobel Prize.
Works: Uber eine neue Art von Strahlen, S. - B. phys. - med. Ges. Wurzburg, S. 132, 1895; Weitere Beobachtungen iiber die Eigenschaften der X-Strahlen, S. B. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Halbband 1, S. 576, 1897; About a new sort of beams, the lane with it., M. — JI., 1933.
Bibliography: Ioffe A. F. Wilhelm Konrad Rentgen, Nature, No. 2, page 107, 1938; it, Memories of Wilhelm Konrad Rentgena, in book: Sketches razv. medical rentgenol. (50 years X-ray, beams in medical), under the editorship of S. A. Reyn-berg, page 29, M., 1948; Reynbergs. A. Zhisn Wilgelma Konrada Rentgena and history of opening of rentgenovy beams, in the same place, page 10; G 1 a s s e of O. Dr W. Page of Ront-gen, Springfield, 1958; G r i g g E. R. N. The trial of the invisible light, Springfield, 1965.
S. A. Reynberg.