X-RAY CINEMATOGRAPHY [rentgeno-(on a name B. X-ray) + cinematography] — the method of X-ray inspection based on filming of the x-ray image. The first attempt of creation of the x-ray movie by consecutive installation of roentgenograms carried out in 1897 Makintayr, Ra and Balthasar (J. Маcintyre, J. Page of Roux, V. Balthazard).
Since 20 — the 30th 20 century filming from the fluorescent x-ray screen gained distribution. Development of this method was interfered by the small brightness of a luminescence of screens, low sensitivity of a film, imperfection of the x-ray equipment and optical systems of movie cameras. Obtaining the X-ray movie required the powerful radiation of a X-ray tube that led to a high level of radiation of the patient.
Widespread introduction of R. in practice became possible only using electron-optical converters of the x-ray image. The USSR began to apply X-ray cinematography from 50th. The big contribution to its development was made by I. A. Shekhter, V. V. Dmokhovsky, Yu. N. Sokolov, L. E. Kevesh, And. X. Rabkin, M. A. Ivanitskaya, etc.
R.'s advantage before usual X-ray analysis (see) and roentgenoscopy (see) is that it allows to fix dynamics of quickly proceeding processes (e.g., swallowing, endocardiac blood circulation, etc.). Consecutive studying of a large number of images (shots) or viewing of the movie shown with various speed enrich idea of the doctor of a condition of an object and facilitate identification patol. processes.
The river is most effective in studying of a throat, gullet, the gatekeeper, a stomach, a small bowel, artificial anastomosis after operations on went. - kish. path. Combination bronchographies (see) and R. — the bronkhokinematografiya — allows to register all phases of filling of a bronchial tree with radiopaque substance and respiratory mobility of bronchial tubes that has special value in early diagnosis hron. bronchitis (see) and hron. pneumonia (see). For assessment of a tone and motive function of uric ways — cups, a pelvis, ureters, a bladder — R. carry out after their artificial contrasting (urokinematografiya). Rubles apply at a research of heart and large vessels (see. Angiocardiography ) for the purpose of detailed studying of a hemodynamics, specification of nature of the inborn and acquired heart diseases, at coronary heart disease (see. Coronary angiography ), and also during the studying of blood circulation in various bodies.
For performance of X-ray cinematography 16-or the 35-millimeter movie camera is attached to the electron-optical converter via the special optical channel so that the doctor can constantly monitor the x-ray image through an eyepiece of the converter or on the television screen and at the right time include a movie camera (fig).
Speed of filming is established depending on a research problem: for registration of bystry processes — 24 shots and more in 1 sec., for registration of the slow movements — 16, 12, 8 or 6 shots in 1 sec. Apply pulse technology of shooting to a dose decline of radiation, at a cut the X-ray tube joins synchronously with the movement of a film therefore during movement of a shot radiation is absent.
The finished shooting movie is shown and looked through on the special projectors allowing to change the speed of projection, and also to consider separate shots.
Development of X-ray television with record of the image on a magnetic tape (see. Television in medicine ), and also serial fluorography from the screen of the electron-optical converter (see. Fluorography ) led to considerable reduction of indications to R. since these methods of registration of the x-ray image are methodically simpler, more economic, than R., and are accompanied by considerably smaller radiation of the patient.
Bibliography: Ivanitskaya M. A., Petrosyan Yu. S. and Homutova M. G. Rentgenokinematografiya in diagnosis of heart diseases, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Kevesh L. E. X-ray cinema research of a gullet, L., 1970, bibliogr.; it, X-ray cinematography and its place in an arsenal of modern methods of X-ray inspection, Vestn. rentgenol. and radio-gramophones., No. 6, page 3, 1976; R and to and N And. X. and Ermakov N. P. Electron-optical strengthening, X-ray television, rents-genokinematografiya, M., 1969, bibliogr.; X-ray cinematography in clinical practice, under the editorship of Yu. N. Sokolov, M., 1969; Lehrbuch der Rontgendiagnostik, hrsg. v. H. Schinz u. a., Bd 1, S. 207, Stuttgart, 1965.
V. V. Kitayev.