WORK — reasonable activity of the person, in process a cut it by means of instruments of labor influences the nature and uses it for creation of the objects necessary for satisfaction of the requirements. Considered in
such aspect of T. is as
K. Marx wrote, «... eternal natural
condition of human life and therefore it is not dependent on any form of this life, and, on the contrary, is identical obshch to all its public forms» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd prod., t. 23, page 195).
T. played a crucial role in the course of formation of the person (see Anthropogenesis). F. Engels a podcher
nodded that thanks to T. functions of hands and organs of speech developed, there was a gradual transformation of a brain of an animal into the developed human brain, sense bodys of the person were improved, the mentality was created (see). In the course of T. at the person the circle of perceptions and representations extended, its labor actions began to have conscious character (see Consciousness). All history, classics of Marxism noted, there is no other than education of the person work (see the Person).
Work is a necessary condition of existence of the person, the most important component of his way of life (see. Socialist way of life). It exerts direct impact on mentality and activity fiziol. systems of an organism (see Physiology of work), promotes preservation of health or, in rare instances under unfavorable conditions, to emergence of nek-ry forms of pathology. Therefore T. is an object of research of the scientific and practical organizations of health care (see Health care, Medicine). Questions of strengthening of health of workers, improvements of conditions of their work and life reside in the center of attention of the Communist Party and the Soviet government (see the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, a floor and - a tic in the field of health protection of the people). Bodies of health care and medical research establishments are directly involved in development of problems of the rational organization of conditions of T. and rest (see), including development of measures of prevention of occupational diseases (see Prevention, Prevention primary), rationing and standardization of T. (see Standardization), holding treatment-and-prophylactic and recreational actions — medical examinations (see) on production, labor protection (see), protection of motherhood and the childhood (see), health protection of children and teenagers (see), the accident prevention (see), examinations of working capacity (see). The solution of sanitary and hygienic questions is important for optimization of labor process p prevention of a professional patolo-eiya (see) (see Occupational health, P roizvodstvenny sanitation, and also articles by separate types of production, e.g. Automotive industry, Aviation industry, Ore mining industry, etc.).
In the course of T. the person can face a number of the factors which are adversely influencing health. Studying of action and rationing of these factors is one of problems of research and practical medical activities (see Maximum allowable concentrations, Exhaustion, Noise, and also articles devoted to the substances making harmful effects on an organism, e.g. Gasoline, Exhaust gases, Dichloroethane, etc.).
Conditions of modern production cause high requirements to the state of health of the person that defines need of vocational guidance and professional selection (see) persons suitable for certain types of work.
See also Physiology of work. Bibliography: Marx K. Capital, t. 1, in book: Marx K. and Engels F. Soch., 2nd prod., t. 23, page 189; about N e, Economic manuscripts of 1857 — 1859 years, in the same place, t. 46, p. 2, page 222; Engels F. A role of work in the course of transformation of a monkey into the person, in the same place, t. 20, page 486; Lenin V. I. How to organize a competition? Lenin V. I. Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 35, page 195; it, From destruction of century way to creativity new, in the same place, t. 40, page 314; Materials of the XXVI congress of the CPSU, page 26, M., 1981; Military and technical progress and Armed Forces of the USSR, under the editorship of M. M. Kiryan, M., 1982; Kirill
V. F fishing. Occupational health of doctors of a surgical profile, M., 1982; Koshe
N. F lion. Problems of personal hygiene and hygienic education of the population and troops, L., 1982; Koshelev N. F., Beketov A. I. and At l and t and N of GO. G. A state and problems of hygiene of military work, in book: Aktualn. probl. general and soldier. gigabyte., under the editorship of N. F. Koshelev, etc., page 27, L., 1973; N and in and to and t and to I A.O. N and To r y and N about in with to and I am V. V. Age operability of persons of brainwork, Kiev, 1979; State and perspectives of development of professional selection of military specialists, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 11, page 3, 1982; Work and health in the developed socialist society, under the editorship of N. F. Izmerov, M., 1979; Living conditions and the elderly person, under the editorship of D.F. Chebotaryov, M., 1978.