From Big Medical Encyclopedia


occupational health. Highway of the item — the industry of the textile industry producing various woolen fabrics.

The main raw materials in Sh. of the item are sheep hair, and also hair of other animals, waste of sherstepererabatyvayushchy productions, cotton, chemical fibers. Highway of the item — the difficult complex combining the enterprises of roughing-out of wool, worsted and cloth plants.

Roughing-out consists in acceptance, sorting (klassirov-ka), washing, drying and pressing of wool. The processed wool arrives on production of yarn on spinning mills where wool is loosened by trepalny cars, is painted, mixes up with other fibers (cotton, staple fiber, waste of cloth production, a woolen rag) t is made oily by an emulsion, processed on the combing and spinning apparatus. In worsted or cloth productions on machine or automatic looms from yarn produce woolen fabrics.

For the enterprises III. the item is characteristic a complex of harmful production factors, the most essential of to-rykh are unfavorable microclimatic conditions (see the Microclimate) 1 increased noise levels (see) and dust content of air (see Dust). Considerable heat releases in combination with high relative humidity of air are characteristic of departments of washing, drying and pressing of wool. Sources of heat releases are heated solutions and the drying equipment. Processes of acceptance, sorting, scutching and a loosening, hackling of wool, and also cleaning of cars are followed by formation of significant amounts of dust of complex structure, edges contains both organic, and mineral components. Maximum allowable concentrations of woolen dust, depending on impurity of silicon dioxide ((2%, 2_Yu %) 10%), are established respectively at the levels of 6,4,2 mg/m3. In weaving sheds on sites of sorting and at the elimination of ruptures of threads which is carried out most often manually tension of sight and attention working is noted. During the works with dry wool dust contains microorganisms. In nek-ry workshops air pollution of a working zone chemical substances is possible: on the site of washing of wool — organic solvents, in krasilnootdelochny workshops — carbon monoxide, compounds of chrome, vapors acetic to - you etc. During the work of machine and automatic looms noise by intensity to 100 and more than a decibels is generated.

At workers of III. the item development of professional relative deafness (see), a mechanic bronchitis is possible (see), cases of a sensitization to woolen dust and development of allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma are frequent (see); at roughing-out of wool chances of infection with a malignant anthrax (see), a brucellosis (see).

Preventive actions in weaving sheds include noise control (improvement of machines, zvukogashe-ny, a rational design of workshops), dusting off by system of local suctions from nodes of cars with an intensive pylevydeleniye, the device of the general positive-pressure ventilation (see), air conditioning (see), rationalization of the general lighting, and also the device of local lamps in workplaces of weavers. At primary processing of wool and coloring of fabrics all tekhnol. the equipment needs to be provided with the ventilated shelters preventing or limiting allocation in a working zone of convection and radiant heat, water vapors, vapors of solvents and other components of the applied liquids. Development of a line method of roughing-out of wool on the basis of mechanization and automation of all tekhnol. operations about 16% of workers allow to release, and also significantly facilitates and revitalizes working conditions. Prevention inf. diseases provides prohibition of preparations of wool in the area, unsuccessful on a malignant anthrax, bacterial. a research of raw materials, disinfection of the infected wool.

All workers of Sh. of the item pass preliminary (at revenues to work) and periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination).

Bibliography: Gusev V. E. Raw materials for woolen fabrics, nonwoven fabrics and roughing-out of wool, M., 1965; Lebedeva A. F. Occupational health in some productions of textile and light industry, the Reference book on a gigabyte. work, under the editorship of B. D. Karpov and

V. E. Kovshilo, page 365, L., 1979; R about -

gachev N. V. Some questions of roughing-out of wool, M., 1980.

G. A. Gudzonsky.