WATSON James (Watson James Dewey, sort. in 1928) — the American biochemist, the specialist in the field of molecular biology, professor, the Nobel Prize laureate (1962).
Ended in 1947. Chicago un-t and a postgraduate study un-that the State of Indiana, in 1950 — 1951 was on a training in un-those in Copenhagen. In 1951 — 1953 worked in Cavendish-sky laboratory Cambridge un-that (England). In 1953 — 1955 was engaged in research work in Californian technological in-those, in 1955 — 1958 was the assistant to professor Harvard un-that the State of Massachusetts, and then professor of the same un-that. Since 1968 Spring Harbore heads Laboratory of molecular biology in Kold.
Working in Kaven-dishsky laboratory together with F. Shout, J. Watson conducted researches of structure of DNA. On the basis of DNA given the X-ray crystallographic analysis and the data received by Chargaff (E. Chargaff) about the equal maintenance of the purine and pirimidinovy bases in molecule DNA, J. Watson and T. Shout offered three-dimensional model of structure of DNA, according to a cut molecule DNA represents a double helix (see. Deoxyribonucleic acid). Creation by J. Watson and T. Allowed to explain with shout of model of a structure of DNA its many physical and chemical properties, and also to assume the possible mechanism of self-reproduction of molecule DNA, experimental confirmations to-rogo were received further. Watson's model — Shout defined the directions of development of researches in the field of transfer of genetic information at molecular level. For opening of structure of molecule DNA to J. Watson together with F. Shout and Wilkins (M. of H. F. Wilkins) awarded the Nobel Prize. Works: Molecular biology of the gene, N. Y., 1965, 1977 (Russian lane, M., 1967, 1978); The double helix, N. Y., 1968 (Russian lane, M., 1969).
Bibliography: Nobel Prizes on physiology and medicine and chemistry for 1962, the Nature, No. 11, page 116, 1962;
Nobel Laureates in medicine, Nature (Lond.), v. 196, p. 319, 1962. O. V. Podobed.