WARE — the objects of use intended for preparation, storage, distribution and meal.
Distinguish P. kitchen, table and tea. Basic gigabyte. requirement imposed to P. of all types and appointments is existence of the smooth inner surface which is well cleared of the remains of food. Items produce from material which does not emit in foodstuff harmful substances in the quantities exceeding admissible and does not exert impact on organoleptic properties of food (does not change color, does not introduce a foreign smell, does not give smack etc.) also differs in high corrosion stability.
The most ancient is wooden and potter's P. S development of a civilization there was P. from metal, glass, porcelain and other materials; considerable distribution was gained by P. from plasts.
From metals for P.'s production a gigabyte. most stainless steel and nickel chrome alloys meet requirements. P. made of aluminum and its alloys, can darken under the influence of foodstuff that is caused by formation of superficial unstable connections which easily are removed and also its organoleptic properties do not exert impact on quality of food. For upgrading of aluminum P. modern methods of processing (grinding, drawings various coverings) allowing to release P. differing in resistance to corrosion are widely used. E.g., the covering teflon increases corrosion resistance of P. and interferes with burning of the food made in it.
Some types of P. produce from iron and cast iron, but without special coatings. Such P. is a little suitable. Without coverings production from iron of baking sheets, and from cast iron of frying pans is allowed. The fat covering their surfaces interferes with effect of oxygen of air and moisture, limiting corrosion of metal. For the purpose of an exception of corrosion, giving of a trade dress and improvement a gigabyte. properties P. from cast iron and steel often enamel. The applied enamel coatings have sufficient resistance to thermal. to chemical and mechanical influences. However they contain a number of substances (boron, fluorine, etc.), transition to-rykh in foodstuff is limited to standards.
Ceramic P. includes potter's, porcelain, faience and mayolikovy products. Potter's P. was eurysynusic among the population in 19 century. The glaze applied at its production contained a significant amount of lead that facilitated its roasting. At storage of food in such P. a part of lead passed into food therefore there were plumbisms. In modern production for glass glazing of an inner surface of P. use glaze, free of lead.
Some ceramic-based paints, dekol and glazes applied in production of porcelain, faience and majolica of household purpose contain toxics (boron, lead, zinc, cadmium, barium, arsenic, antimony) which can be leached under the influence of organic to - t and with food stuffs to get into a human body. Therefore in many countries, including in the USSR, on them the admissible number of migration (ANM) is established.
Plastic P.'s production owing to its insufficient thermal stability and a possibility of transition to foodstuff of separate ingredients of its chemical structure is limited. Permission to P.'s production from polymers gives M3 of the USSR only for definite purposes. Important gigabyte. the requirement, performance to-rogo prevents spread of diseases through P. — correctly organized washing of P., a cut at modern catering establishments make in dishwashers, and in small dining rooms and in house conditions hands. Dishwashers on a way of processing of P. happen jet and brush, on a design — chamber and open. In dishwashers of chamber type P. it is processed by a water jet or washing solution at t ° 30 — 60 °, in cars of open type — water or solution using brushes or other mechanical means. Universal dishwashers of periodic action are most widespread in the USSR. In a number of designs of such cars the set level and water temperature in bathtubs, concentration of detergents are automatically supported. Before a bookmark P. in the car from it the remains of food shall be removed. Nonmechanized (manual) washing of P. is made in three bathtubs: after power tool cleaning from the remains of food P. wash in the first bathtub at t ° 45 — 48 °C with addition of detergents; in the following bathtub of P. wash with hot water (t ° 50 °) with addition of disinfecting substances (the clarified solution of lime chloride, chloroamine); in the third bathtub make its rinsing (water temperature not lower than 80 °). Dry P. in a drying oven or on the special shelf, a lattice. Glasswares and crystal (glasses, shot glasses, vases, sockets etc.) are washed in two waters and wiped with a pure towel. Aluminum the dishes are not recommended to be washed with soda or leach since at the same time it darkens.
There is a direct dependence between fatty impurity of P. and its bacterial contamination. In this regard control methods of quality of washing of P. are based on establishment remained on a surface of the washed dishes of fat. Washouts from a surface of the washed-up P. investigate on presence of bacteria of group of colibacillus and on total quantity of microbes. Colibacillus shall not contain in washouts from pure ware.
Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 365, M., 1971.
A. P. Shitskova, R. S. Hamidulin.