From Big Medical Encyclopedia

VIVARIUM (Latin. vivarium the reserve for a game, a menagerie) — the room for contents and cultivation of the laboratory animals used for the scientific purposes and in practice of bodies of health care.

Can be very various as by the form century, and by quantity of the animals who are in them that is defined by features of scientific research. Can use not only for contents century, but also for increase in a livestock of laboratory animals. Animal husbandry practices in V. usually when for an experiment it is necessary to have animals of a certain look, size, weight, gender and age or existence in V. of own nursery which are grown up in special conditions of food, lighting etc. Besides, considerably facilitates a problem of uninterrupted supply of laboratories with necessary quantity of small animals. In them some scientific research, napr, on clarification of results of long influence of various diets, etc. can be conducted.

In laboratory practice divide two concepts: a vivarium — the room for contents in appropriate conditions of the animals who are in a condition of experience and nursery — the room for reproduction and keeping of animals before their use. Uninterrupted supply of laboratories with animals perhaps only at the organization of the large nurseries run by the qualified livestock specialists and which are under vt. - a dignity. control.

The device B. is defined first of all by species composition of animals in this connection distinguish V. specialized (dog lovers, monkey houses etc.) and the general, or complex type, providing keeping of various animals: dogs, cats, rabbits, Guinea pigs, white rats and mice. Can also include century: aquariums for fresh-water and marine animals, terrariums for amphibians and reptiles, enclosures and cells for birds, the adapted rooms for different types of mammals.

Winter and summer, constant and temporary distinguish rooms (so-called ranges). In each V. there shall be a quarantine room for again arrived and the insulator for sick animals (during the work with artificially infected animals construction of specially arranged insulators is always provided). For care of animals after difficult operations in modern V. arrange so-called clinics where create to animals especially favorable conditions and where they are under constant observation. Clinical rooms can be also used for long keeping of the animals demanding special leaving. In case of need at the structure of clinics single chambers are provided as the general, and. There shall be specially equipped rooms allowing to carry out sanitary cleaning as again arrived animals and appointed to operation or used in the long experiments demanding observance defined a gigabyte. conditions (uslovnoreflektorny experiences, etc.). In some cases it is absolutely necessary to have specially equipped disinfection chamber allowing to process quickly infected cells, overalls of employees and subsidiary stock in V. The room for opening of the fallen animals and storage of corpses shall be provided. It is equipped with kitchen with distributing both a sink and warehouse for storage of products and reserve stock century. It is necessary to pay much attention to ventilation of Century. Usual methods of ventilation with simple suction of air from rooms for animals, as a rule, are insufficient. For full removal of light-end products of disintegration of allocations of animals arrange positive-pressure ventilation. V.'s rooms shall have waterproof, napr, stone or cement, a floor with ditches and reliable ladders that allows to make quickly cleaning by a water jet from the flexible pipe connected to a water supply system. That it was possible to wash and disinfect walls, they are revetted with a tile.

For keeping of dogs usually use or big iron cells (the size of 100X80X100 cm and more), or specially constructed cabins (the area apprx. 2 m 2 ) with a trellised front wall, in a cut there is reliably locked door (in V. Mosk. state. un-that these cabins are revetted with a tile one height higher than human growth and have the area apprx. 5 sq.m). A floor in cabins becomes slightly inclined that allows urine to flow down without delay in a waste flute. In each cabin the high trellised wooden flooring leveling curvature of a floor and allowing to wash away easily excrement a water jet is put on a floor. All cabins shall have the label with number and a nickname of a dog.

For keeping of cats who very badly transfer bondage and quickly perish in usual small cells, it is reasonable to arrange big open-air cages (350x700 cm and more) on 15 — 20 cats. In such open-air cages each cat shall have an individual cabin for a dream (40x40x30 cm), a so-called hollow. In the open-air cage it is necessary to put a box with sawdust and to establish special infrared radiators that cats could be warmed.

Fig. 1. Different types of cells for rabbits.

For keeping of rabbits cells of different samples (fig. 1), not less than 50 — 70x40 — 50x40 — 50 cm in size which are placed to 3 floors on specially arranged racks (in nurseries cells of 110x60x80 cm are convenient) are used. Both cells, and racks are recommended to be produced from metal since the tree easily becomes soiled and difficult gives in to disinfection. Aluminum is very convenient for production of trellised cells for rabbits, and racks can be made of the simple iron covered with water-resistant paint.

Guinea pigs can be contained in the rabbit cells or cells of a special sample (65 — 90x55 — 60X40 cm) having 2 departments.

Fig. 2 and 3. Cells for small rodents.

For keeping of smaller animals, i.e. rats and mice, mesh cells or cells with a door from metal rods, etc. are usually applied (fig. 2 and 3) of the smaller size (30 — 50X40X25 cm). These cells economically are established on racks, forming so-called batteries. Each cell has the pull-out tray allowing to make quickly cleaning.

For long keeping of frogs the superficial cemented pools or bathtubs with running water are used. In them the floorings or shallows from sand and a stone allowing frogs to sit in shallow water and to get out to the land shall be made. It is necessary to control constantly purity of water and to timely otsazhivat sick animals.

At the organization of aquariums for contents and cultivation of fishes it is necessary to consider that many breeds of fresh-water fishes badly transfer mains water, edges are might contain by excess of chlorine and a number of the coagulants added to water for release it from suspensions. Therefore in the large cities at the device of big aquariums often instead of mains water use water from artesian wells, allowing it to heat up in settlers where it is in addition saturated with oxygen. At the organization of the terrariums intended for the maintenance of reptiles consider special insistence of these animals concerning a temperature schedule, light conditions and humidity. Reasonablly in terrariums to create the known gradient in temperature, illumination, and also distribution of water and sushi that animals could choose for themselves a so-called zone of comfort, i.e. conditions of the best existence.

The conditions necessary for keeping of wild mammals can be so various that needs to be known at V.'s construction specifically with what species of animals it is necessary to deal.

Planning V., it is necessary to aim to place most rationally rooms in different floors of the building and not to make mistakes in V.'s arrangement in relation to other buildings. It is necessary to consider, e.g., that keeping of dogs in the cities, especially in summertime, is accompanied by great difficulties since their bark in V. and especially in ranges can disturb the people living in the neighboring houses. Therefore it is always desirable for V. to build in more lonely place; in the absence of such opportunity it however should be placed not in the basement floor, and under the roof of the building: bark of dogs in garrets almost does not stir life of the city and distribution of off-flavors decreases.

It is equipped with stock for cleaning, washing by hot water of cells and rooms and their disinfection, feeding troughs and drinking bowls, buckets and pans for production (washing, crushing, cooking) and distributions of forages, scales for animals and for forages, dressing gowns and towels for service personnel, thermometers, a reserve of disinfectants, the first-aid kit century; in big nurseries it is necessary to bake for burning of corpses, garbage and manure from sick animals. As the best covering material for cells serves soft peat, hay, sawdust, pod of grain products is less suitable. During the feeding of laboratory animals it is necessary to carry out the following rules: the quantity of forages shall be sufficient, but not excessive; not to allow the spoiled and stale forages; forages shall contain polyneuramins appropriate quantity (in the absence of fresh forages to give yeast, fish oil, sometimes vitamin drugs); to feed 2 — 3 times a day feeding females and young growth — not less than 3 times; to place forages in well cleared and disinfected feeding troughs (boiling after washing); to another to make transition just seeing food gradually in avoidance at animal intestinal frustration; to give water at exclusively dry fodder (e.g., at absence in a daily diet of root crops), and also to females before childbirth; in cells with rodents to put rods or pieces of a tree, in particular in a growth period of teeth. It is recommended to use for small animals the combined forages in the form of fodder briquettes that provides the healthy, uniform and economic nutrition. Control of food is exercised by periodic weighing of selective groups of animals.

The correct statement of matter in V. demands exclusively attentive relation to feeding of animals. Determined by m3 of the USSR in the special order together with the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR the norms of feeding (taking into account vitamin structure of forages) providing the best results of cultivation of different breeds of laboratory animals.

In total V. are in the USSR under observation of bodies vt. the service which is regularly carrying out obligatory protivoepid, an action and providing the timely help to all sick animals. See also Laboratory animals.

The microbiological vivarium has the essential features caused by need to use at the same time large number of the small and differing in a special susceptibility to infectious diseases animals. To receive animals from small farms of handicraft type dangerously since it is possible to bring infections in V. The room for cells shall consist of the rooms which are easily isolated in case of mass infectious diseases; besides, certain rooms are necessary for preparation of forages, storage and their stock, for isolation of suspicious and infectious animals (together with their cells). It is recommended to equip in nurseries the platform protected from a rain for summer contents in cells of rabbits and Guinea pigs. Special attention is paid to rooms for the experimental animals infected by different infections demanding the isolated contents (corridor system or even separate entrances from the outside). The infected animals contain in individual cells of the small size (except mass experiences on very small animals at simultaneous infection with their identical culture). It is necessary to eliminate an opportunity not only spread of infections in V.'s rooms, but their willow course out of its limits. It is provided with the system of strict isolation which is deeply thought over for each V. (separate service personnel, prohibition of an entrance to other persons, frequent change of overalls and so forth), detention regime and feedings of the infected animals, careful disinfection of all stock.

Animal husbandry shall satisfy to requirements of laboratories for animals with the properties of an organism, most useful to the experimental purposes, fixed in their posterity therefore in V. the qualified selection and zootechnical work, including on removal of pure lines (is necessary see. Inbreeding ).

In connection with specifics of conditions of keeping in V. laboratory animals show the raised susceptibility to diseases. Danger of infectious diseases increases at organizational and technical omissions in maintenance: density, the insufficient and wrong feeding which is not corresponding to appointment stock (especially cells), non-compliance with the main measures of prevention and so forth. Big farms should be divided into the isolated parts which are under obligatory and regular vt. - a dignity. observation. Daily and most attentive survey of animals with observance of all precautionary measures from possible spread of an infection is necessary: frequent washing of hands or rubdown by their towel moistened in disinfecting solution, disinfection of scale pans, thermometers and other objects adjoining to animals; survey of animals sick and suspicious in this respect only after survey of healthy; immediate removal of all patients and suspects of infection to the isolation center. All animals coming to economy or to V. are maintained in the quarantine room by not less than two weeks.

The vivarium mobile is intended for contents and transportation of laboratory animals in field conditions. It is used in a dignity. - protivoepid. institutions. The vivarium (fig. 4 and 5) is placed in the unified frame body van of KUNG-P2M installed on the chassis of the two-axis automobile trailer 2-PN-2 (SMZ-710 of B).

Fig. 4. The mobile vivarium placed in a body van. It is towed by truck century.
Fig. 5. Scheme of a mobile vivarium (placement of the equipment): 1 — a case for overalls; 2 — a rack with cells in department for experimental animals; 3 — an air duct of a heater; 4 — the exhaust blower; 5 — canisters with water; 6 — a case for a forage and water; 7 — a back door of a body for an entrance to the platform; 8 — a case with boxes for a forage; 9 — a longitudinal partition; ίο — a rack with cells in healthy animals compartment; 11 — heating and ventilating installation; 12 — canisters with disinfecting solutions; 13 — a front door of a body for an entrance to the platform; 14 — an air inlet of system of ventilation; 15 — an electroboard.

For observance protivoepid, a duty mobile V.'s room is divided by a partition into two isolated departments — for healthy and experimental animals. The entrance to each of them has the platform, outside and internal doors and racks with cells of three standard sizes. In platforms cases for placement of boxes with a week stock of forages, canisters for water and disinfecting solutions, a case for overalls of service personnel are established.

The system of ventilation, separate for each department, consists of water evaporating air coolers, the soaking-up fans and air ducts; in department of experimental animals the exhaust blower is installed, For heating of rooms the heating and ventilating installation using liquid fuel is in addition used.

V.'s departments are lit with ceiling electroplafonds and two portable lamps.

Existence of heating, ventilation and other design features allows to maintain in rooms for animals air temperature ranging from +12 ° to +30 ° and necessary exchange of air.

Sources of power supply of mobile V. in the movement are 3 rechargeable batteries (6-CT-68) of 12 century. On mobile V.'s parking it is connected to the external alternating current main by voltage of 220 V. On an electroboard toggle-switches of management of systems of heating and ventilation, plug sockets for connection to external network and accession of a cable of the portable panel intended for management of heating from a cabin of the moving car tractor are installed.

Over a roof of a body for protection against solar radiation the board reflector is established. Under a board on the forefront of a roof the tank with water for food of the water evaporating vent system is located.

Under a body there are boxes: left for tools and a set of spare parts, right — for accumulators.

In healthy animals compartment in 13 cells 56 pigs and 125 mice, in department for experimental animals in 30 cells — 16 pigs and 220 mice take place.

Service animals of 1 — 2 people; survey, feeding and providing animals with water, cleaning, disinfection and maintenance of a necessary temperature schedule in rooms belongs to their duties.

Bibliography: Bashenina N. V. Guide to contents and cultivation of new species of small rodents in laboratory practice, M., 1975, bibliogr.; 3 and-padnyuk I. P. 3 and p and d N yu to V. I. and Zachariah E. A. Laboratory animals, their cultivation, contents and use in an experiment, Kiev, 1962, bibliogr.; Kowalewski K. L. Laboratory livestock production, M., 1958; To about z-l I to about in N. V., etc. Guide to feeding of laboratory animals, experimental bird and producers, M., 1968; Lane-Petter U. Ensuring scientific research with laboratory animals, the lane with English, M., 1964, bibliogr.; M edv edev H. H. Linear mice (Reference guide), L., 1964, bibliogr.; P. P., Metelkin's sugars. And. and Gudkova E. I. Laboratory animals, M., 1952, bibliogr; Pathologie der Laboratoriumstiere, hrsg. v. P. Cohrs u. a., Bd 1—2, B., 1958; The UFAW handbook on the care and management of laboratory animals, Edinburgh — L., 1972.

V. A. Shidloveky; A. I. Metelkin (bakt.), V. A. Sidorov (soldier.).