VIROLOGIC LABORATORY — the institution which is engaged in studying of viruses and viral diseases or production of virus drugs (vaccines, diagnosticums, antiviral immune serums, etc.).
Century of l. separated from bacteriological and began to exist in the form of independent units in 20 century. In the USSR the first V. of l. were created in the thirties. Now in the country is available several in-t of medical virology combining V. of l. various profiles where viral diseases are studied, the nature of viruses is investigated, virus drugs are developed and produced (Ying t of virology of D. I. Ivanovsky, Ying t of poliomyelitis and viral encephalitis, All-Union scientific research institute of flu, the Moscow scientific research institute of virus drugs, etc.). Century of l. is also in the majority of the allied and republican in-t of microbiology and epidemiology which are usually pro-thinned out concerning studying of one or several diseases. Besides, there is apprx. 150 V. a l. at republican, regional and city a dignity. - epid, the stations, and also laboratory at large to lay down. institutions; generally they are engaged in diagnostic work. In addition to medical V. of l., there are laboratories for studying of viral infections of animals and plants.
Sizes and V.'s states of l. depend on appointment and the volume of work. In all cases safety of personnel and a possibility of carrying out work in sterile conditions is obligatory.
Century of l. consists of actually laboratory and utility rooms — for processing and sterilization of ware, preparation of mediums (for cultivation of cellular cultures, identification of bacteria and mycoplasmas), lyophilizing of viruses, an incubator, a vivarium, etc. If V. of l. is a part of larger establishment (in-that, a dignity. - epid, stations, etc.), utility rooms can be the general for a number of laboratories or all establishment.
Actually V. of l. is under construction on type bacteriological laboratory (see) taking into account specifics of work — cultivation of cellular and fabric cultures, ultracentrifuging, storage of viruses at low temperatures, etc. It is equipped for diagnostic work (allocation of viruses and serological tests), for studying of properties of viruses, their structure, carrying out genetic researches, etc.
V.'s room of l. it has to wash and be processed by disinfecting solutions easily. For this purpose walls are painted with an oil paint or revetted with a tile, a floor is covered with linoleum or a tile. The room is equipped with positive-pressure ventilation approximately with 10-fold exchange of air; it shall be provided with cold and hot water, and also lighting gas. It is desirable to have the centralized system of compressed air (pressure to 1,0 — 1,2 atm) and vacuum (to 700 — 760 mm of mercury. residual pressure). Shower rooms for employees shall be provided. During the work with especially dangerous viruses neutralization (by boiling) drain waters is necessary.
In V. of l. existence of the certain room for sterile work consisting of two departments divided by a glass partition is obligatory. The internal room — the box — shall be small (6 — 8 m 2 ), with a low ceiling (see. Boxes , microbiological). The door shall open in the predboksnik serving for clothing of additional clothes, separated by the second partition from other room. For sterilization of boxing and a predboksnik use germicidal lamps from a cathedral glass with the prevailing wavelength of 254 nanometers (see. Bactericidal lamps ). For this purpose it is possible to use lamps of BUV which establish at the rate of 2 — 2,5 W on 1 m 3 rooms; average term of service of a lamp 1500 hour. Providing boxes with sterile air at the expense of forced ventilation at 4 is obligatory — 5-fold exchange; for air sterilization LAI K filters from Petryanov's tissue — the FPP type can be used.
Only tools and ware, a sterilizer, necessary for work, for tools, wide-necked banks with disinfecting solution, a tank with a cover for the infected material shall be in the box. During the work with causative agents of especially dangerous infections (natural smallpox, encephalitis etc.) in boxing establish in addition desktop boxing, in Krom the air both arriving, and flowing will be sterilized by filtering. Ground rules of work with especially dangerous activators are regulated by the special instruction.
For disinfection in V. of l. use most often lysol of 1 — 5%, chloroamine of 1 — 5%, formalin of 2,5 — 5%.
In addition to usual bacteriological ware, V. of l. shall have a homogenizer for crushing of fabrics, magnetic stirrers, microscopes (light for a research in a usual and ultraviolet light, and also electronic), the centrifuges of various power (on 3 — 5 thousand rpm, and also with cooling on 12 — 15 thousand and 60 thousand rpm) having a set of rotors. The thermostats which are at the same time working at various temperature (from 25 to 40 °), including with supply of carbon dioxide gas, or thermostately rooms are necessary. Century of l. it is equipped with refrigerators or refrigerators with t ° +4 ° — 20 ° and — 40 °. Vessels of the Dewar with liquid nitrogen are necessary for storage of cultures of cells or refrigerators with a temperature are lower — 90 °.
The laboratories studying biochemistry of viruses are equipped as chemical. Work with radioisotopes is performed in specially equipped room.
In departments on preparation of Wednesdays, in addition to usual chemical ware, it is necessary to have installations for processing of water, edges it is twice distilled in glass devices or deionized on columns with ion-exchange resins. For sterilization of solutions which cannot be autoclaved use the asbestobumazhny sterilizing Zeytts's plates which are built in in Salnikov filters (F-140, FS-3, FS-7, etc.); filtering is carried out with a pressure of 0,5 atm. With the same purpose it is possible to use glass plates (candles) and Millipor filters with the size of a time from 0,22 to 1,2 microns (see. Bacterial filters ).
Vivarium (see) V. shall be separated by l from the room actually. In it it is necessary to have rooms for a quarantine of the arriving animals, for their infection and separately for opening. Work with small laboratory animals is performed behind protective glass. Disinfecting of cells is better to make the ferry for keeping of animals. It is also necessary to have a crematorium for burning of corpses of animals and garbage.
Bibliography: Kravchenko A. T. The principles of the organization and a duty of virologic and rickettsial laboratories, the Management across Laborat, diagnosis of viral and rickettsial diseases, under the editorship of P.F. Zdrodovsky and M. I. Sokolov, page 219, M., 1965; Laboratory diagnosis of viral and rickettsial diseases, under the editorship of E. Lennet and N. Schmidt, the lane with English, page 9, 123, etc., M., 1974; Guide to the laboratory diagnosis of smallpox for smallpox eradication programmes, Geneva, WHO, 1969; Virologische Praxis, hrsg. v. G. Starke, Jena, 1968, Bibliogr.
AA. P. To a saw.