VIBRIOES — a sort of microorganisms Vibrio including gram-negative with a constant bend or direct asporogenic sticks with polarly the located flagellum, indofenoloksidazopolozhitelny, forming acid without gas of D-glucose by glycolysis according to Embden's scheme — Meyergofa. This temporary definition was offered in 1966. Subcommittee on taxonomy of Century. International association mikrobiol, societies (IAMS).
Former definitions of the sort Vibrio allowed to rank as it a large number of gram-negative microbes. The given definition allowed to exclude many species of bacteria from the sort Vibrio.
According to V. D. Shtiben and I. K. Babich (1955), Brid's classifications (R. Breed, 1957), Wilson and Myles (G. Wilson, A. Miles, 1964), the sort Vibrio is carried to this. Spirillaceae; Eddie, Carpenter (V. of Eddy, To. Carpenter, 1964) and Veron (M. of Veron, 1965) believe that the sort Vibrio shall become a basis new this. — Vibrionaceae.
Because V. are very similar to not gas-forming representatives of the sort Aeromonas which is also offered for including in this. Vibrionaceae, R. Sakazaki and soavt. (1967) added definition of the sort Vibrio with data on existence of decarboxylases of a lysine and ornithine, lack of argininedihydrolase, and also on ability to split to gelatin, property to recover nitrates and inability to form hydrogen sulfide. There is disputable a question of the taxonomical provision of «strains of C27» [Ferguson, Henderson (W. Ferguson, N. Henderson), 1947] which Gabs, Schubert (H.Habs, R. Schubert, 1962) suggested to carry to the new sort Plesiomonas (a type of Shigelloides) this. Pseudomonadaceae. Veron (1971) considers these microorganisms as V. — Vibrio shigelloides. Eddie and Carpenter (1964) consider that the mentioned microorganisms should be excluded from this. And to carry Pseudomonadaceae to this. Vibrionaceae as sort Plesiomonas.
It is necessary to differentiate not only with Plesiomonas and not gas-forming representatives of Aeromonas century, but also with microbes of the sorts Pseudomonas and Comamonas (the last named inaktivny V. earlier).
Due to the 7th pandemic of cholera the sort Vibrio repeatedly was exposed to audit, but still standard classification of V. does not exist. In 1936 Heyberg (V. of Heiberg) offered biochemical, V.'s classification, to-ruyu in 1965 Smith and Goodyear, based on various relation of V. to three carbohydrates added: to sucrose, pectine sugar and mannose (tab. 1). Heyberg's scheme can be used for V.'s differentiation only in a complex with other signs.
For medicine the following representatives of the sort Vibrio have the greatest value:
1. V. cholerae (a biotype of V. cholerae and a biotype of V. El Tor) — the causative agent of cholera (fig.). From patients with cholera and healthy vibriononositel, from drain waters quite often allocate the atypical V. which in particular are not agglutinated cholera OI serum. In one cases lack of an agglyutinabelnost of O-antigen is connected with phenotypical change; 2-hour warming up at 1100 ° recovers an agglyutinabelnost. In other cases hereditary change of a structure of O-antigen takes place; the arising mutants are called it is NUDE - vibrioes. For examination whether such atypical V. are cholera, use standard O-serums. 39 Au-group of V. having the general H-antigen are described. The activators recognized as all cholera (see) treat OI group.
It is very close to cholera V. on morfol., cultural, biochemical, to signs and on ability to give a cross immunity of Vibrio metchnikovi.
Century, similar with cholera on morfol., cultural biochemical, to signs, but not possessing the general with them About - and N-antigens, often allocate from objects of the environment. If specific accessory of V. is not defined, them it is necessary to call Vibrio spp., but it is not NUDE - vibrioes.
2. V. parahaemolyticus — optionally the galofilny microbe causing dizenteriye-and the choleroid diseases, food poisonings connected with the use of crude and moist sea fish, crabs, mollusks.
Parahemolitic V. are eurysynusic in the seas and oceans where there are favorable heating environments and water is rich with organic matters. One of idiosyncrasies of V. parahaemolyticus is the galofiliya — inability to reproduction for lack of sodium chloride and resistance to its considerable concentration (7 — 8%).
Studying of an antigenic structure of these V. showed that, except thermostable somatic O-antigen, they contain thermolabile capsular (To) and flagellar (N) antigens. 12 types on O-antigen and 55 on K-antigen are described.
3. V. alginolyticus — the galofilny microbe found in sea water, aquatic organisms and sometimes in a chair of patients with a gastroenteritis.
4. V. phosphorescens (synonym of V. albensis) — the shining V. living in a sweet and salt water of open reservoirs. 3. V. Ermolyeva (1924) for the first time found it in excrements of the person.
Differential signs of V. and bacteria, similar to them, are presented in tab. 2 and 3.
Table 1. BIOCHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION of VIBRIOES BY THEIR RELATION TO CARBOHYDRATES (Heiberg, 1936; Smith and Goodner, 1965)
Table 2. DIFFERENTIAL SIGNS of FAMILIES of the VIBRIONACEAE And PSEUDOMONADAGEAE FAMILIES
Table 3. DIFFERENTIAL SIGNS of REPRESENTATIVES of the SORT VIBRIO
Bibliography: Shtiben V. D. and Babich I. K. Opredelitel of bacteria, pathogenic for the person, M., 1955, bibliogr.; Eddy B. P. a. Carpenter K. River of Further studies on Aeromonas, J. appl. Bact., y. 27, p. 96, 1964, bibliogr.; Fee 1 e at J. Page of Minutes of IAMS subcommittee on taxonomy of vibrios, Int. J. system. Bact., y. 16, p. 135, 1966; Habs H. u. Schubert R. H.W. Uber die biochemi-schen Merkmale und die taxonomische Stel-lung von Pseudomonas shigelloides (Bader), Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig., Bd 186, S. 316, 1962, Bibliogr.; S a k a z a k i R., G o-m e z of Page Z. S e b a 1 d M. Taxonomical studies of the so-called NAG vibrios, Jap.J. med. Sci. Biol., v. 20, p. 265, 1967, bibliogr.; Wilson G. S. a. Miles A. A. Topley and Wilson’s principles of bacteriology and immunity, v. 1—2, L., 1964.
P.N. Burgasov, I. V. Domaradsky, And. E. Libinzon.