UVEITIS

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

UVEYT (uveitis; late lat. uvea a choroid of an eye + - itis) — an inflammation of a choroid (vascular, or uveal, a path) eyes.

Due to the features of an anatomic structure of a choroid of an eye, in particular separate blood supply and an innervation of its front department — irises (see), a ciliary body (see) and back — an idiovascular cover, or a horioidea (see the Choroid of an eye), inflammatory processes, as a rule, develop in them separately; an inflammation front otdelya a choroid of N and z t in and go t both r and d about a cycle and t about m (see), or to lobbies At., back department of a choroid — a choroiditis (see), or a back uveitis. In rare instances the inflammation extends to all vascular highway of an eye — iridotsiklokhorioidit (pan-uveitis). Since the end of the 50th years allocate as an independent form an inflammation of a flat part of a ciliary body (a ciliary circle) and the extreme periphery of an idiovascular cover — peripheral At. On Woods's classification (A. Woods, 1956) distinguish granulematozny At., at to-rykh the inflammatory center has character of a granuloma (see) with a perifocal inflammation, and negranulematozny, at to-rykh an inflammation has diffuse character.

Distinguish the exogenous uveites developing at the getting wounds of an eye, at a perforated helcoma and other damages of an eye and the endogenous uveites arising at various general diseases.

The leading role in a pathogeny At. play immune mechanisms. Depending on immunol. reactions of a choroid are distinguished atopic At. (see the Atopy), connected with effect of exogenous allergens (pollen of plants, foodstuff, etc.); anaphylactic At. (see the Anaphylaxis), caused by development of allergic reaction to introduction to an organism of immune serum; autoallergichesky At. (see the Autoallergy), at to-rykh allergen the pigment of a choroid or squirrels of a crystalline lens is (fakogenny At.); microbic and allergic (see. An infectious allergy), the infections developing in the presence in an organism of the centers.

Identification etiol. a factor at At. presents great difficulties. In large part cases an origin At. remains obscure.

Features of pathological anatomy, a clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment and the forecast of an inflammation of an iris and a ciliary body are stated in article an iridocyclitis (see), an idiovascular cover — in article a choroiditis (see); the forms of a uveitis which are not described by independent articles are included below.

Both r and d about c and to l about x about r and about and d and t (a pan-uveitis, generalized at in e and r) — the most severe form At., it is observed in two versions: acute and chronic.

Acute iridotsiklokhorioidit arises as a result of a drift of pathogenic microorganisms in capillaries of a choroid or a retina. It is characterized by sharp eye pains, decrease in sight.

Inflammatory process (as a rule, purulent) quickly extends to an iris and a ciliary body with frequent development of abscess of a vitreous (see Endoftaljmit). At especially heavy current the purulent inflammation of all covers of an eyeglobe is observed (see Panoftal-Meath). Treatment of an acute iridotsiklo-choroiditis consists in introduction of antibiotics intramusculary, under a conjunctiva, retrobulbarno, in an anterior chamber of an eye, a vitreous; make a vitreoek-tomiya (see the Vitreous), at impossibility to keep an eye — evisceration of an eye (see). During the progressing of process the forecast adverse.

X roniches the cue ir and to CEC of l about x about r io can-dit also have a herpetic, brucellous, tubercular etiology, meets at a sarcoidosis (see), Vogt's syndrome — Koyanagi (see Vogt — Koyanagi a syndrome). Develops within several years with frequent aggravations. As a rule, affects both eyes. Formation of considerable opacities of the vitreous body, exudative centers in a choroid is characteristic that leads to decrease in sight. Treatment is complex, includes the hyposensibilizing influence, use of antibiotics, antiviral drugs, immunodepressants, in late stages — excision shvart a vitreous.

During the progressing of process — the forecast serious, in many cases develops an atrophy of an eyeglobe.

Periferich with to and y at in e-and the t develops hl. obr. aged from 20 up to 35 years; affects more often both eyes.

At the beginning of a disease moderate decrease in sight, unsharply expressed photophobia is noted. At biomicroscopy of an eye (see) small powdery opacities of the vitreous body come to light. Gradually disorganization of a vitreous and local accumulation of exudate in the field of the gear line develops; exudate in a vitreous of white or grayish-white color, dense, is well delimited, gradually spreads to the area of a ciliary body.

Sometimes find small corneal precipitated calcium superphosphates and front synechias. In late stages amotio of a vitreous, education rough shvart is possible that it is followed by considerable decrease in sight. As complications peripheral At. can develop a cataract (see), secondary glaucoma (see), secondary dystrophy of a retina in macular area (see Retinopathies), a papilledema. Amotio of a retina, a retinal apoplexy belong to rare complications retnnoshizis (see the Retina). Treatment peripheral At. carry out in a complex. by the same principles, as treatment of an iridocyclitis (impact on a source of an infection and a sensitization. on immune mechanisms p on vospalitelnyn process in a choroid). In detail — see//r//rtouii K.'i of Thursday.

482 UVEOPAROTITIS


the Forecast at timely and

correct treatment at the majority

Bol mi y \, | aroi (a riya tny.

>Ihin.ni'g; And r x and N of e l with to and y V. N. L1 (»! N |) (>.13-t at the general diseases

at dts | C >d an edition of E. I. Kowalewski, page 12 - M of 1978; II e N to about in M. A., III and i (» II. and And in r at shch e N -

to about N Endogenous uveites, Kiev,

1979; i) y l about in A. Ya., Yuzefov And! And z and r about and and N. S. Tuberkula of i «.i 'of a bolevaniye of eyes, L., 1963;

t of v i i ^ i of N of page E. Immunological bodies» of km?.1 in ophthalmology,

page 159, P; H '• 75; Swords; N. I. Tokso-

ii.in. m>; 1 M., 1978; Camp i n-

<■ Ii’.11. i. L’uveite, P., 1970;

>Immuno-1 an i] ’.' •!> 'uveitis, ed. by A.

E. Maurne-3u *<‘. \V Silverstein. p. 83, Baltimore,

1904; P; • ■ Ic i n s E. S. Uveitis and toxopi.iH-i L., 1961, bibliogr.;

System of oj!; t Ikj I iMniogy, ed. by S. Duke-Elder, v. 9. L., >IW6; Woods A. C. Endogenous uvoilis, Baltimore, 1 956.

O. B. Chentsova.

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