UROLOGY (Greek uron wetting + logos the doctrine) — the field of clinical medicine studying an etiology, a pathogeny and clinical displays of diseases of bodies of uric system and developing methods of their diagnosis and treatment. Besides, At. is engaged in treatment of nek-ry sexual frustration at men (see Sexual pathology). At. includes such specialized sections as an onkourologiya, an uroginekologiya, a ftiziourologiya, children's urology, operational nephrology. Onkourologiya studies features a wedge, currents, recognitions and treatments of tumors of urinogenital system. Uroginekologiya studies methods of treatment of the combined diseases of generative and uric organs at women. Problems of a ftiziourologiya are the organization of early tuberculosis detection of bodies of uric system and men's generative organs, studying of features their wedge, currents, improvement of methods of conservative and operational treatment, and also prevention and treatment of complications (see Tuberculosis extra pulmonary). The children's urology studies features of an etiology, a pathogeny, symptomatology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases of the bodies of urinogenital system at children's age demanding an operative measure. The operational nephrology deals with problems of an acute and chronic renal failure, their treatment with methods of a hemodialysis (see), peritoneal dialysis (see), haemo filterings (see t. 15, additional materials) and transplantations of a kidney (see Renal transplantation), diagnosis and treatment of arterial nephrogenic hypertension (see arterial hypertension).
At. is one of the most ancient medical specialties. Apprx. 3 thousand years BC in Egypt were able to diagnose and delete stones of a bladder, to carry out a tsirkumtsiziya (see the Penis). In the papyrus of Hébert-sa (17 — 16 centuries BC) were stated symptomatology of a schistosomatosis (see) uric system, the delay and an incontience of urine are described. Hippocrates described a number of diseases of a bladder and kidneys, recommended a lumbotomy (see) at paranephrites. Ibn-Xing described a number of diseases of bodies of urinogenital system, for diagnosis to-rykh recommended to study physical properties of urine, and for treatment offered a number of pharmaceuticals. Many scientists of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Alexandria [Aristotle, A. Tsels, K. Galen, Herophilos, etc.] along with other questions of medicine were engaged in studying and the Urals. diseases, most often urolithiasis.
During an era of the Middle Ages a perineal lithotomy (see) and catheterization of a bladder the wandering operators not having vocational education made, but among them there were many experienced practicians. The urology violently developed in Renaissance thanks to blossoming of anatomy along with surgery. The first-ever suprapubic lithotomy was executed in 1474 by J. Callot. In 1588 the Spanish doctor F. Diaz published the first capital work devoted to diseases of kidneys, a bladder and urethra.
Considerable development At. reached in 19 century thanks to widespread introduction of tool and diagnostic methods of inspection, development of the doctrine about anesthesia, an asepsis and an antiseptic agent, and at the end of
19 century — thanks to progress of a radiology. Most actively during this period in the area U. worked: in
France — O. Nelaton, L. Mercier, F. Gyuyon, J. Civiale, I. Albarran; in England — G. Thompson, A. Fenwick; in Austria — L. Dittel and Tsukkerkandl (O. Zuckerkandl); in Russia — A. I. Paul, F. I. Inozemtsev, V. A. Basov, T. I. Vdovikovsky, F. I. Sinitsyn, N. V. Sklifosov-sky, A. G. Podrez, S. P. Fedorov, etc. The cystoscope invented in 1877 to M. Nit-tsa considerably expanded possibilities of recognition the Urals. diseases, and the cystoscope designed in 1897 by I. Albarran a leg-rizatsionny presented an opportunity to carry out catheterization of ureters. In 19 century kidney operations [G. Simon, To) began to be developed. F, Kosinsky, N. V. Sklifosovsky, S. P. Fedorov, A. A. Bobrov, etc.], operational treatment of adenoma of a prostate (A. G. Podrez, S. P. Fedorov, P. Freyer), reconstructive plastic surgeries on an urethra (Ya. V. Vil-liye, A. G. Podrez, K. M. Sapezhko) and a bladder (N. V. Sklifosovsky, N. A. Velyaminov, M. S. Subbotin). In 1830 in Paris the first was open the Urals. department.
At the beginning of 20 century original ways of a functional research of kidneys were developed, methods of radiodiagnosis the Urals appeared. diseases. From the second half of 20 century began to study at the homeland an amika (see); in At. tracer and ultrasonic techniques of a research were implemented. Borders At. considerably extended, new sections — children's urology, an uroginekologiya, an onkourologiya, a ftiziourologiya, sexual pathology, etc. gained development; development of such problems as treatment hron is begun. a renal failure by means of a hemodialysis and renal transplantation, questions of diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases of kidneys, neurogenic frustration of an urination, etc.
A big role in development At. played widespread introduction rentgenol. methods of a research. In 1896 F. Gyuyon for the first time executed a survey picture of uric bodies, in 1902 Mr. A. Wittek made a pnevmotsistografiya (see. Cis-tografiya). To development of radiodiagnosis Urals. diseases the retrograde piyelografiya offered in 1906 by F. Voelcker and A. Likhtenberg substantially promoted (see Piyelografiya). Since 1910 the uretrografiya (see), with '1921 — pneumoren (see), since 1947 — presakral-ny pnevmoretroperitopeum is applied (see). In 1923 E. D. Osborne and sotr. the excretory urography (see) which found broad application for recognition the Urals was offered. diseases. Since 1933 the urokimogra-fiya (see Rentgenokimografiya), since 1955 — an urokinematografiya (see X-ray cinematography), since 1949 — an antegrade piyelografiya is applied (see Piyelografiya). R. Dos Santos in 1929 offered a trance lumbar, and Itikava (To. Ichikawa) in 1938 and S. Seldinger in 1953 — a transfemoralny renal angiography (see). In 1935 Dos Santos for the first time executed a venokavografiya (see Kavografiya). In 1946 — 1950 the pelvic flebografiya was implemented (see. Pelvic angiography).
History domestic At. begins in an extreme antiquity. So, in ancient sources there are data on treatment of an urolithiasis as officinal herbs, and by a lithotomy. In 12 century Evpraksiya in the management of Alim-ma recommended to diagnose nek-ry the Urals. diseases on physical properties of urine. In 18 century in Russia doctors well knew and treated not only an urolithiasis, but also strictures of an urethra, cystitis, adenoma of a prostate, a disease of external genitals. Domestic Urals. tools were produced in the «tool log hut» founded in 1718 in St. Petersburg. Since 1719 in Russia for treatment the Urals. diseases began to apply mineral waters. There were P.3. Kondoidi, A. A. Sevasto,
V. A. Klyucharev, N. K. Karpinsky's scientific works, etc. In 1776 in Moscow I. P. Venediktov organized school of operators of a stone disease.
In the first half of 19 century in Russia premises for allocation were created At. in the independent industry of medicine. In Medicochirurgical academy in St. Petersburg the first Russian surgical school, representatives a cut I. F. Bush, I. V. Buyaljsky,
P. N. Savenko, I. V. Rklitsky was created, etc. the considerable attention was paid At. A big role in development At. this period was played by A. I. Paul, F. I. Inozemtsev, V. A. Basov, N. I. Pirogov, etc. Since 1844 P. P. Zablotsky-Desyatovsky for the first time in Russia allocated At. in an independent subject of teaching in Medicochirurgical academy. Since 1830 in Russia began to apply widely lithotripsy (A. I. Paul, F. A. Gildebrandt, F. I. Inozemtsev, etc.); since 1823 — a high cystotomy (K. I. Grum-Grzhimaylo, A. A. Keith-ter, N. I. Pirogov, I. V. Buyal-sky, etc.); since 1806 — outside (Ya. V. Villiye, N. I. Pirogov) and internal (A. P. Rastsvetov,
A. A. Kitter, etc.) an urethrotomy.
In the second half of 19 century. At. in Russia it was allocated in independent discipline. In 1863 in Odessa the first in Russia was open the Urals. department, T. I. Vdovikovsky was the organizer to-rogo. In 1866 in Moscow the first in Russia was open the Urals. clinic at Moscow un-those; I. P. Matyushenkov, and since 1877 — F. I. Sinitsyn was her first head. Arose the Urals later. clinics and departments in St. Petersburg, Kharkiv, Kiev and in other cities. At the end of 19 — the beginning of 20 century the first domestic guides to
A. G urology were published. Undercut (1887), N. A. Mikhaylov (1909). Also operative measures on poch
ka began to develop, a founder to-rykh in Russia was S. P. Fedorov; many opening and achievements of surgery of kidneys and ureters are connected with his name. It is a lot of number of sections U, new and original in development. B. N. Holjtsov, F. I. Sinitsyn, A. V. Martynov,
B brought. I. Razumovsky, S. R. Mirot
of vorets, D. P. Kuznetsk, V. A. Op-pel, S. I. Spasokukotsky, P. D. So-lovov, V. A. Gorash. N. F. Lezhnev, A. G. Podrez, N. A. Mikhaylov,
A. N. Gagman, N. S. Pereshivkin and
other surgeons and urologists.
From first years of the Soviet power in all large cities were discovered the Urals. departments, and at medical in-ta — the Urals. clinics. Development At. in the USSR it is closely connected with activity of urological schools in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Tbilisi, Minsk, Tashkent, Kharkiv, Tomsk and other cities and the whole group of domestic urologists: A. I. Vasilyev, D. A. Vvedensky, A. M. Gasparya-n, V. A. Gorash, Ja. G. Gottlieb, D. P. Kuznetsk, N. F. Lezhnev,
C. N. Lisovska, A. I. Mayants,
B. M. Mysh, to I. M. Por to Minsk,
A. Ya. Pytel, P. D. Solovov,
C. P. Fedorov, R. M. Fronshtey-n, A. P. Frumkin, B. N. Hol-tsov, A. A. Chaika, A. P. Tsulukidze, I. M. Epstein, etc.
The main problems modern At. inflammatory nonspecific and specific diseases of kidneys and uric ways, a nephrolithiasis, onkourologichesky diseases, reconstructive plastic surgeries at the Urals are. diseases, renal failure. During the studying of these problems use modern diagnostic methods, in particular an angiography, a limfografiya (see), an urokinemato-grafiya, a computer tomography (see the Tomography computer), tracer techniques of a research (a radio isotope renografiya, an indirect radio isotope renoangiogra-fiya, a dynamic renal stsinti-grafiya, a radio isotope urofloume-triya, etc.), and for treatment the Urals. diseases — all modern methods, including transplantation of a kidney and extracorporal operations.
The main direction modern domestic At. — prevention Urals. diseases. Thanks to free and public medical aid preventive inspections for the purpose of early detection of pyelonephritis, tuberculosis of kidneys (see Tuberculosis extra pulmonary, tuberculosis of kidneys), an urolithiasis (see), cancer of a bladder, adenoma and a prostate cancer and others the Urals became possible. diseases, and also medical examination Urals. patients.
To the Urals. clinics of our country a large number of works on problems of pyelonephritis is executed (see). New methods of identification of a leukocyturia and a bacteriuria, radio isotope and immunological diagnostic techniques are developed, various methods of conservative treatment of pyelonephritis, including combined with hron, a renal failure are studied.
It is a lot of new and original the Soviet urologists brought in a problem of a nephrolithiasis (see). The exogenous and internal causes promoting formation of urinary stones (see), and also etiology of a disease are studied, the local centers of an urolithiasis in the USSR are defined; indications to operation for korallovidny stones of kidneys are considerably expanded and their results are improved. The pathogeny of adenoma of a prostate is studied (see), indications to various this disease operations are defined; it is proved that method of the choice is the one-stage adenomectomy with sewing up of a bladder tightly; features of an urgent adenomectomy are studied.
In ftiziourologichesky clinics features of a pathogeny, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis of kidneys, in a wedge are studied, to the practician modern diagnostic methods, including bacteriological and immunological are implemented; organ-preserving kidney operations (a cavernotomy, a kavernek-tomiya, a resection) and reconstructive plastic surgeries on the uric ways are widely carried out. At treatment of suffering from tuberculosis uric and generative organs the dignity is widely used. - hens. treatment (Alupka, Shafranovo, Glukhovskaya, etc.).
A lot of work is carried out on early detection and treatment of tumors of uric and generative organs, prevention of professional tumors of a bladder, preventive inspections of men for detection of tumors of a prostate. Various methods of radical operational treatment of tumors of kidneys, including with preliminary embolization of renal vessels (see Kidneys, tumors), tumors of a bladder (see the Bladder, tumors) and a prostate (see the Prostate, tumors), including a transurethral electroresection are implemented.
Considerable development received the Urals. help to children. To the nursery Urals. to the practician modern methods of functional radiological and radio isotope diagnosis are implemented. Problems of malformations of uric and generative organs, pyelonephritis, neurogenic dysfunction of a bladder (see the Bladder), to the varikotsela are studied (see) etc.; methods of organ-preserving operations on uric and generative organs at children are developed.
Original researches on problems of venous renal hypertensia, identification of its role in genesis of a row the Urals are conducted. diseases and symptoms, reconstructive plastic surgeries on renal vessels, including autotransplantation of a kidney and extracorporal operations are implemented in practice.
In 1965 B. V. Petrovsky for the first time in the USSR executed transplantation of a kidney from the living donor, then a cadaveric kidney. In the Soviet Union renal transplantation (see) found broad application (N. A. Lopatkin, G. M Solovyov, H. E. Savchenko p other) - For treatment of patients with hron. a renal failure in the USSR widely use an extracorporal hemodialysis (see), to-ry at a number of patients carry out in out-patient conditions.
In the Soviet Union it is opened 3 research in-that urology (Moscow, Kiev, Tbilisi) where current questions of modern U. Eti in-you are successfully developed are the scientific and coordination and organizational and methodical centers for this specialty (see Research institutes, the table).
The Soviet medical industry in production of the equipment and tools for diagnosis and treatment the Urals achieved a certain progress. diseases (see. Urological tools). For crushing of stones of a bladder the original devices «Urate-1» and «Urate-1M» are designed (see Lithotripsy), to-rye with success are used in the USSR and abroad, different types of cystoscopes are mastered (see Tsistoskopiya) at tools for extraction of stones of an ureter, the ultrasonic equipment, roentgenourologic chairs, the domestic device «artificial night» is created (see. Artificial kidney).
Urological help to the population of the USSR is given in numerous hospitals and the Urals. offices of policlinics. According to the order of the Minister of Health of the USSR «About measures for further development and improvement of the urological help to the population of the country» (1971) a great job on strengthening the Urals is done. hospitals and to creation interdistrict Urals. departments for the maximum approach the Urals. the help to country people. In many cities of the Soviet Union the Urals. clinics of medical in-t represent powerful uronef-rologichesky complexes, departments of urology, operational nephrology and laboratory of a hemodialysis are a part to-rykh. Constantly the number of doctors-urologists to the Urals increases. offices at policlinics. In addition to all-urological receptions, polyclinic receptions on children's urology and sexual pathology, and in the corresponding clinics — on a ftiziouro-logiya and an onkourologiya are carried out.
To further upgrading Urals. the help was promoted also by improvement of training of students at the departments and courses of urology opened in all medical in-ta and also improvement and specialization of doctors-urologists at departments of urology of in-t to an usovarshenstvovaniye of doctors.
About organizational, lechebnoprofilaktichesky and scientific achievements modern At. materials of numerous congresses and conferences testify. To questions U. much attention at congresses of the Russian surgeons was paid. So, from 827 reports given at 14 congresses of surgeons (from 1900 to 1916) to the Urals. subjects it is necessary 122 (14,7%). Among them the reports devoted to diseases of kidneys, a bladder and prostate rank high. 3 all-Union congresses of urologists are held (Baku, 1972; Kiev, 1978; Minsk, 1984) and 5 all-Union conferences. The first Russian about-in urologists, to-rogo S. P. Fedorov was elected the chairman, it was organized in 1907 in St. Petersburg. In a crust, time All-Union scientific about-in urologists combines 15 republican in urologists.
In 1907 the International association of urologists was founded. The first congress of association took place in 1908 in Paris under the chairmanship of I. Albarran. In 1921 the association was renamed in International urological about-in. The Soviet urologists are members both International about-va urologists, and the European association of urologists.
The first special urological magazine «Annales des maladies des organs genito-urinaires» began to appear since 1882 in France; in 1912 he received the name «Journal d'urologie medical et to a chirurgica-1a», and in 1961 — «Journal d’urologie et nephrologie».
In the USSR a lot of literature on questions U is published., including monographs according to all its main sections. Questions of urology are taken up in the Urology and Nephrology magazine, «Medical abstract magazine» (the XIX section — «Urology. Operational nephrology»). The detailed list of periodicals on urology see in St. Medical periodicals.
Military urology — the section of military medicine and urology studying features of emergence, a current, treatment, and also questions of prevention and examination the Urals. diseases and damages at the military personnel in peace time and in various conditions of fighting activity of troops.
The main tasks military At. are the prevention the Urals. diseases in troops, improvement specialized the Urals. the help in peace time and development of the evidence-based principles of stage treatment (see) Urals. wounded with damages of bodies of urinogenital system in the conditions of a fighting situation.
Development military At. in our country it is closely connected with development of military medicine (see Medicine military), field surgery (see Surgery field) and urology, activity of outstanding representatives of domestic medicine — N. I. Pirogov,
S. P. Fedorov, and also B. N. Hol-tsov, A. I. Vasilyev, A. A. Chaika, A. P. Frumkin, G. S. Grebenshchikov, etc.
The major military unit At. the doctrine about fighting damages is. By data I. N. Shapiro, during the Great Patriotic War of wound of bodies of urinogenital system made apprx. 3% of total number of all wounds. From among damages of bodies of urinogenital system of wound of kidneys and ureters made 12,1%, the closed damages of these bodies — 0,5%, wound of pelvic bones with damages of its bodies — 49,4%, the closed damages of pelvic bones with injuries of a bladder and urethra — 0,3%, wounds of external genitals — 37,7%.
Wounds of urinogenital system are characterized by the heavy combined damages; they are followed by release of urine in surrounding fabrics, quite often proceed with complications (uric flow, phlegmons, fistulas, inflammations of uric and generative organs, strictures of various departments of uric ways, an urosepsis, etc.).
In the conditions of wartime the first and pre-medical help (see. First aid, in field conditions; The Pre-medical help, in field conditions) at damage of uric and generative organs consists in imposing on a wound of a bandage, administration of anesthetics. During the rendering the first medical assistance (see) if a condition of the patient satisfactory, and the bandage did not get wet and did not get off, are limited to intramuscular administration of antitetanic serum and antibiotics. At an acute ischuria resort to catheterization or a capillary puncture of a bladder. In MSB (OMO) during the rendering the qualified surgical help (see. The qualified medical care) hold antishock events in full. In cases of the menacing bleedings and at the combined damages of abdominal organs according to vital indications make operative measures. The specialized surgical help (see. Specialized medical care in field conditions) render to the Urals. departments of field hospitals.
URONIC ACIDS 119
High requirements to the state of health at conscription practically exclude replenishment of army and fleet by persons about the Urals. diseases. Urol. the help to the military personnel in peace time is carried out in full, as a rule, to the Urals. departments of large military hospitals, to the Urals. to clinic of VMA of S. M. Kirov, to-rye are equipped by all necessary for rendering this type of medical aid.
Preparation and improvement of military urologists is carried out under the direction of the Master military-medical control of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR in an internship in districts, on to lay down. - the prof. department f-that administrative board of medical service VMA of S. M. Kirov, and also by active participation of military urologists in research, activity urological and surgical about-in, in scientific conferences and congresses of urologists.
The center of research, educational, medical and advisory and expert work in the field of urology in Armed Forces of the USSR is the department of urology of VMA of S. M. Kirov.
Bibliography: History — In d about in and to about in -
with to and y T. I. K of history of urology in Russia, the Russian doctor, t. 7, No. 22, page 743, 1908; Vishnevsky M. P. Lithotripsy, the Historical sketch of development of technology of operation and indications to it, SPb., 1892; Gasparyan A. M. A short historical sketch of development of urology, the Management on a wedge, the Urals., under the editorship of. A. Ya. Pyte-lya, page 5, M., 1969; Gasparyan A. M., Gasparyan S.A. and T to and h at to V. of N * Sketches on stories of domestic urology, JI., 1971, bibliogr.; Gol-
G. I. K dynes of history of domestic urology, M., 1964; Achievements and perspectives of development of the Soviet urology and nephrology, Urol. and nefrol., No. 6, page 3, 1982; Lezhnev N. F. History of emergence and development of the Russian urological society in Leningrad, Urology, No. 5, page 34, 1924; Domestic urology in 50 years of the Soviet power, Urol. and nefrol., No. 5, page 3, 1967; Py-t e l A. Ya. International society of urologists (Short historical sketch), Urology, No. 4, page 44, 1962;
chu to V. N. Znacheniye of the first Russian surgical school in development of urology, Urol. and nefrol., No. 2, page 53, 1965; Fronstein R. M. To history of urology in Russia, Klin, medical, t. 2, No. 5, page 171, 1924; Frumkin A. P. Sergey Petrovich Fedorov is the founder
of domestic urology (to the 25 anniversary from the date of death), Urology, No. 4, page 3, 1961;
Murphy L. I. T. The history of urology, Springfield, 1972; R iis ter D., Beitrage zur Geschichte der Urologie, in book: Allg. und spez. Urol., hrsg.
v. G. W. Heise u. a., Bd 1, S. 21, 1977.
Textbooks, the guides, the reference media — Gaysinsky B. E., at-dynsky Ya. V. and Khokhlov H. M. Urological endoscopy, M., 1978;
Gasparyan A. M. The bibliographic index of the Russian literature on urology in 30 years (1900 — 1929), M. — L., 1931; it, the Bibliographic index of the Russian literature on urology in 10 years (1930 — 1939), Kharkiv, 1940; A. Ya. Urologiya's Dukhans of children's age, L., 1961, bibliogr.; And N and about are and d z e G. 3. The bibliographic index of domestic urology and adjacent areas in 100 years (1855 — 1955), t. 1 — 5, Tbilisi, 1959 — 1972; Caen D. V. Guide to obstetric and gynecologic urology, M., 1978, bibliogr.;
Karpenko V. S., Abramov Yu. A. both To r and in about sh e y N. F. Out-patient urology, Kiev, 1980, bibliogr.; A clinical onkourologiya, under the editorship of E. B. Ma-rinbakha, M., 1975; Krayzel-
at r d L. P. Clinicoradiological diagnosis of urological diseases, Ufa, 1962, bibliogr.; Lopat-kin N. A. and To at the h and N with to and y I. N. Treatment of an acute and chronic renal failure, M., 1972, bibliogr.;
Lopatkin N. A., etc. Radio isotope diagnosis in an uronefrologiya, M., 1977; The Multivolume guide to surgery, under the editorship of B. V. Petrovsky, t. 9, M., 1959; Mysh V. Clinical lectures on urology, Tomsk, 1926, bibliogr.; Operational urology, under the editorship of S. P. Fedorov and R. M. Fronstein, M. — L., 1934; Petrovsky B. V., etc. Renal transplantation, M. — Warsaw, 1969; Pytel A. Ya. and Pytel Yu. A. Radiodiagnosis of urological diseases, M., 1966, bibliogr.; Raus S. Primary help in urology, the lane with English, M., 1979; Reznik B. M. Bibliographic index of domestic urological and nephrological literature 1955 — 1970, Odessa, 1972; it, Bibliographic index of domestic urological and nephrological literature 1971 — 1974, Odessa, 1978; The Guide to clinical urology, under the editorship of,
A. Ya. Pytelya, M., 1969 — 1970; The Reference book on urology, under the editorship of N. A. Lopat-kin, M., 1980; Urology, under red *
H. A. Lopatkina, M., 1982; Fedo
S. P. Hirurgiya's ditch of kidneys and ureters, century 1—6,M. — L., 1923 — 1925; Frumkin A. P. Cystoscopic atlas, M., 1954; Holtsov B. N. Guide to urology, t. 1, century 1 — 2, L., 1924; Chukh-riyenko D. P., Lyulko A. V. and Romanenko H. T. Atlas of urogineko-logical operations, Kiev, 1981; Epstein I., M. Urologiya, M., 1959; Advances in diagnostic urology, ed.
by C. C. Schulman, V. a. o., 1981; Allgemeine und spezielle Urologie, Lehrbuch fur Kli-nik und Praxis, hrsg. v. G. W. Heise u. a., Bd 1 — 11, Lpz., 1977 — 1982; BedrnaJ. Detska urologie, Praha, 1951, bibliogr.; Campbell M. F. Principles of urology, Philadelphia — L., 1957, bibliogr.; it, Campbell’s urology, v. 1 — 3, Philadelphia, 1978 — 1979; Cibert J. e t Perrin J. Urologie chirurgicale, P., 1958; Cockett A. Since a. To o-s h i b a K. Manual of urologie surgery, N. Y., 1979; Dodson A. I. Urological surgery, St Louis, 1956; Gynecological urology, ed. by A. F. Youssef, Springfield, 1960; Handbuch der Urologie, hrsg.
v. C. E. Aiken u. a., Bd 1—16, B. u. a., 1958 — 1963; Klinische Urologie, hrsg. v.
Page E. Aiken u. W. Staehler, Stuttgart, 1973; L an u r e t G. Urologie de l’enfance, P., 1956, bibliogr; L owsley O. S. a. To i r w i n T. J. Clinical urology, v. 1 — 2, Baltimore, 1956; M a s k e 1 1 R. Urinary tract infection, L., 1982;
Smith D. R «General urology,
Los Altos, 1975; Staehler W. Klinik und Praxis der Urologie, Bd 1 — 2, Stuttgart, 1959, Bibliogr.; Urologie surgery, ed. by J. F. Gleen, N. Y. a. o., 1975; W i 1 d-b about 1 z E. Lehrbuch der Urologie, B. u. a., 1959.
Military At. — A military injury of urinogenital bodies and its treatment, under the editorship of R. M. Fronstein, M., 1947; Lisi
tsyn K. M., etc. Field surgery, M., 1982; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 13, M., 1955; Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine of t. 5, Art. 653, M., 1948.
Periodicals — the Medical abstract magazine, the Section XIX — Urology, Operational nephrology, M., since 1957; Urology and nephrology, M., since 1965 (1923 — 1941, 1955 — 1964 — Urology); Acta urologica Belgica, Brussels, since 1927; Aktuelle Urologie, Stuttgart, since 1970; Archivio italiano di urologia, Bologna^ 1924; Archivos espanoles de urologia, Madrid, since 1947; British Journal of Urology, L., since 1929; Journal d’urologie et de nephro-logie, P., since 1961 (1912 — 1960 — Journal d’urologie medicale et chirurgicale, 1882 — 1911 — Annales des maladies des organes genito-urinaires); Journal of Urology, Baltimore, since 1917; Minerva urologica, Torino, since 1949; Nephron, Basel, since 1964; Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, Stockholm, since 1967; Zeitschrift fur Urologie und Nephrologie, Lpz., since 1964 (1907 — 1963 — Zeitschrift fiir Urologie, 1894 — 1906 — Zentralblatt fiir die Krankheiten der Harn-und Sexual-Organe, 1889 — 1893 — Internationales Zentralblatt fiir die Physiologic und Pathologie der Harn-und Sexual-Organe).
A. Ya. Pytel, V. H. Tkachuk;
I. P. Shevtsov (soldier.).