UROCHROME (Greek igop urine + chr5-ma color) — the yellow or orange-yellow pigment of urine causing its normal color together with other pigments; chemical constitution is found out insufficiently, believe that this pigment represents compound of urobilin with peptide. Such definition At. corresponds to the definition given it by F. Shtraub, to-ry calls At, oxidate of bilirubin (see).
The term «urochrome» was offered in 1864 it. the doctor Tudikhum (L. J. W * Thudichum) who called so for the first time the pigments of urine allocated to them (among them urohematin, uromelanin, urorozein, ^ ypoj ferrinovy to - that). In 1913 the Austrian
doctors Weiss (M. of Weiss) analytically divided Tudikhum's urochrome on red (urobilin) and yellow (actually an urochrome) fractions and into colourless fraction so-called protein to - t (gistidinovy fraction). He suggested to define At. in the urine divorced double water volume, yellow coloring by training at addition of 1% of solution of potassium permanganate. According to Weiss's definition, At. represents group of yellow pigments of urine, to-rye are formed at oxidation of colourless urochromogens. V. S. Gulevich (1926) believed that At. — it is nitrogenous, iron-free organic to - that. Sometimes the term «urochrome» incorrectly designate urobilinoida (see Urobilin).
Normal the daily volume of urine contains 70 — 75 mg At. At saturation by ammonium sulfate of 50 — 75% of an urochrome drops out in a deposit (a so-called urochrome In), and 50 — 25% remain in solution (an urochrome And). There are data that the quantity of an urochrome In increases at the raised erythrocytolysis, and an urochrome And — at a sapropyra, already at an early stage of a disease.
According to Simon (N. Simon, 1840), on air U. turns in uroeritrin — the pigment providing red coloring of urates (see). However it contradicts data on what uroeritrin is a product of a catabolism of a chlorophyll (see) in urine. Excretion of an uroeritrin (it is normal of 1 — 2 mg a day) considerably raises (gipereritrinemiya) at hemolitic jaundice (20 — 25 mg a day) and venous stagnation in a liver.
There is an opinion that consumption of the drinking water contaminated At'., can lead to oppression of function of a thyroid gland and is etiol. a factor of developing of a local craw, however many researches goitrogenic action At. it is disproved.
Bibliography: See bibliogr. to St. Urobilin.
N. V. Gulyaeva.