URATES — the urate which is at the person an end product of purine exchange. Disturbance of exchange of uric acid (see) is the reason or accompanies such diseases as gout (see), urate diathesis (see), an urolithiasis (see the Urolithiasis), etc. Significant amounts At. are allocated with urine at the diseases connected with disintegration of cells and fabrics, napr at leukoses (see), feverish states, and also at acid fermentation of urine and bent to formation of urinary stones (see). At newborns the strengthened catabolism of nucleoproteids as a result of a patrimonial stress against the background of limited opportunities of the canalicular device of kidneys creates conditions for emergence in kidneys of a so-called urate heart attack (see). The urate heart attack is observed sometimes and at children of advanced age, treated a tsi-toast tics.
Urinary stones approximately in 20% of cases consist from At. These salts are also a part of the mixed uric joints.
At. — normal salts uric to - you С5Н2Ха2^т40з — are formed at dissolution uric to - you in solutions caustic heat the GAME or NaOH caustic soda, and at dissolution uric to - you in solutions of carbonates, phosphates and other salts of potassium or sodium acid salts uric are formed to - you are C-, H3NaN403 (the biurates which are usually also called by urates). At. distinguish on their ability to be dissolved at warming up of a pla by slow formation of crystals free uric to - you at addition to such solution salt or acetic to - you; in total At. give characteristic mureksidny reaction (oxidation mochevjy to - you nitric to - that and emergence of purple coloring at addition of spirit of ammonia).
In urine a part uric to - you are in a type of acid salts, hl. obr. salts of potassium and sodium; normal salts uric to - you in native urine do not meet. At. are almost insoluble therefore at release of the acid concentrated urine in all cases of dehydration of an organism, napr, at vomiting, a diarrhea, strong sweating, a feverish state, etc., after cooling in urine the deposit of characteristic rose-red or brick-red color drops out. The main component of this deposit are a biurate of sodium. and also corresponding compounds of potassium, calcium and magnesium. It should be noted that At. drop out in a deposit only in an aciduria. At alkaline fermentation of urine (its rotting), and also at cystitis all these salts pass into a biurate of N403 C5H3 (NH4) ammonium.
Deposit At. under a microscope represents the painted small kernels collected in small groups or strips to-rye, being located on slime, can form false cylinders, sometimes they are postponed on the real cylinders or epithelial cells; crystals of urate ammonium under a microscope have the form of ocherous spheres, quite often accrete, covered with needles or shoots.
See also Urine, an urocheras; At a raturiya.
Bibliography: 3 and r with to and y B. I., Ivanov I. I. and Mardashev S. R. Biological chemistry, page 436, L., 1972; M e c of l e r D. Biokhimiya, the lane with English, t. 3, page 170, M., 1980. N. F. Tolkachevskaya.