UNITHIOLUM (Unithiolum; synonym: Di-maval, Unitioi, etc.; joint venture. B) — the antidote applied at poisonings with compounds of arsenic and heavy metals. 2,3-Dimerkapto-propansulfonat natriya; C3H7S3Na03-H20:
Fine-crystalline powder, white or white with slightly creamy shade, with very slight smell of mercaptan. Let's easily dissolve in water, it is not enough — in alcohol and other organic solvents. Water solution of drug — colorless transparent liquid with a slight smell of mercaptan; pH of 5% of solution 3,1 — 5,5. Will sterilize at t ° 100 ° within 30 min.
On a chemical structure and pharmakol. to properties U. it is close to Dicaptolum (see), but differs from it in water solubility, smaller toxicity and bigger width of therapeutic action.
At. is one of the most effective antidotes applied at poisonings with compounds of arsenic and salts of heavy metals. However at poisonings with hydrogen arsenide, secondary hectares-loidoarsinami (difenilkhlorarsi-
number, etc.), and also salts of selenium and uranium U. it is inefficient. Anti-toxic properties U. easily water soluble thioarsenites and mercaptans are caused by its ability in the place of two sulphhydryl groups to form with cations cyclic, difficult dissociating, but, to-rye are quickly removed through kidneys.
Strong linkng At. with arsenic and heavy metals and bystry removal from an organism of the complexes which are formed at the same time not only prevents blockade of thiol groups of enzymes, but also promotes recovery of their activity owing to what symptoms of poisoning are weakened or completely are eliminated. At. increases also removal of nek-ry cations (especially copper and zinc) from metallic enzymes.
At. it is quickly soaked up in blood at parenteral administration. In the maximum concentration At. collects in blood in 15 — 30 min. after intramuscular introduction. Unlike Dicaptolum, At. it is distributed preferential vnekle-precisely. Time on l at removal makes it apprx. 1 — 2 hour. In 5 hours after introduction in an organism only U. Vydelyaetsya's traces generally kidneys, in hl are found. obr. in the form of products of partial and full oxidation, partially — in not changed look.
At. apply at acute and hron. poisonings with a lewisite both others organic and inorganic soyedineniyakhm of arsenic, and also compounds of mercury, gold, chrome, cadmium, cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel, bismuth, antimony. At poisoning with arsenic and nek-ry metals (e.g., lead) At. use in a combination with tetatsin-kal-tsiyem (see). Besides, At. apply to mobilization and increase in removal of copper ions from an organism at hepatocerebral dystrophy (see), in a pathogeny a cut accumulation of copper in kernels of striopallidal system plays a role.
There are data on efficiency At. at alcoholism, schizophrenia, intoxication cordial glycosides.
At acute poisoning with compounds of arsenic, heavy metals and cardiac glycosides U. appoint generally intramusculary or subcutaneously on 5 — 10 ml of 5% of solution at the rate of 5 mg/kg or on 1 ml of this solution to 10 kg of the weight (weight) of a body according to the following scheme: in the first days — 3 — 4 injections (in hard cases — to 8 injections), on second day — 2 — 3 injections, in the next 3 — 7 days — on 1 — 2 injection a day. At poisonings to soy-dineniyakhmi of arsenic and heavy me
tall At. apply also to a gastric lavage on 100 — 150 ml 5% of solution. At hepatocerebral dystrophy At. appoint intramusculary on 5 — 10 ml 5% of solution daily or every other day courses on 25 — 30 injections. During the performing antialcoholic therapy At. 2 — 3 times a week or once enter intramusculary on 3 — 5 ml 5% of solution (for stopping of attacks of a tremens).
Side effect At. it can be shown by nausea, is more rare vomiting, tachycardia, hypertensia, blanching of the person, dizziness, concern. Administration of Dimedrol reduces weight of by-effects.
At. it is incompatible with the drugs containing heavy metals and quickly decays in the presence of alkalis.
It is contraindicated at a serious illness of a liver, an idiopathic hypertensia. At a serious illness of heart At. appoint with care.
Form of release: powder; ampoules on 5 ml of 5% of solution. Storage: in usual conditions.
See also Antidotes ABOUT, Antidotes.
Bibliography: Mashkovsky M. D.
Pharmaceuticals, p. 2, page 181, M., 1984; Trin at with F. P., etc. Molecular mechanisms of effect of dithiols, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. I, page 75, 1984;
Aposhian H. V. DMSA and DMPS— water soluble antidotes for heavy metal poisoning, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., v. 23, p. 193, 1983.
F. P. Trinus.