From Big Medical Encyclopedia

UNION OF SOCIETIES OF THE RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT OF THE USSR (SOKK and KP SSSR) — the voluntary mass public organization combining 11 republican about-in Red the Cross and 4 about-va Red Crescent in the Uzbek, Azerbaijani, Turkmen and Tajik SSR. An emblem of SOKK and KP USSR — a red cross and red crescent on a white background. For January 1, 1983 in SOKK and KP USSR there were 116 million members.

SOKK and KP USSR together with bodies and healthcare institutions and public organizations participates in implementation of the measures directed to strengthening of health of the population, extension of active creative longevity of each Soviet person, increase a dignity. cultures of the population. Specific objectives of SOKK and KP USSR consist in attraction of a general population to holding preventive, recreational and sanitary and defense actions; in promotion a dignity. - a gigabyte. and medical knowledge, principles of socialist humanity; gigabyte. education and medical - a dignity. to training of younger generation; training of the population in ways and methods of rendering the first medical aid in case of accidents and sudden diseases; expansion and deepening of international relations with about - you the Red Cross, Red Crescent of foreign countries.

In the activity of SOKK and KP USSR uses traditional and the dignity finds new forms of participation of the population in the movement for increase. cultures on production and in life, in improvement of the cities and villages, environmental control, in fight for the statement socialist way of life (see).

Positive takes in activity about-va are achieved thanks to the constant management and support from the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Soviet government.

Emergence of the organization of the Red Cross is connected with the idea of the organization of public aid to the victims of war. In Russia during the Crimean war (1853 — 1856) there was a social movement on simplification of a fate of wounded on fields of battles. In 1854 in St. Petersburg with the assistance of the outstanding Russian surgeon N. I. Pirogov the Krestovozdvizhensky community of care about wounded and sick soldiers was created (see. Nurse ) — the first-ever women's medical formation on assistance to wounded and patients in the battlefield. Public aid by the wounded by forces of sisters of mercy was a prototype of activity of future organization of the Red Cross.

N. I. Pirogov in the book «Beginnings of the General Field Surgery» and Swiss A. Dunand in «Memories of Solferino» at the beginning of the 60th 19 century convincingly proved need of creation in peace time of the international organization combining public efforts for simplification of a fate of the victims of war. In 1863 with active participation of A. Dunand and assistance of the Swiss Society of national advantage «The committee of five» was created, and in 1864 in Geneva the Diplomatic conference took place, on a cut the Geneva convention on improvement of a fate of wounded and patients in field armies was developed and signed by representatives of 12 countries (see. Geneva conventions ). Russia joined this convention in 1867. The committee of five in Geneva in 1876 was renamed into the International Committee of the Red Cross. Ob-va of the help to wounded and patients, created by this time in the different countries, began to be called about - you the Red Cross. In the countries where the Muslim population prevailed, similar about-va received the name about-va Red Crescent.

In Russia the related activity began long before the official basis about-va Red the Cross. In 1867 it was created Russian about-in cares about wounded and sick soldiers; in 1879 it was renamed in Russian about-in Red the Cross (FATE To). Many outstanding physicians — N. I. Pirogov, N. V. Sklifosov-sky, S. P. Botkin, S. I. Spasokukotsky, N. A. Velyaminov, N. of Ii actively participated in its activity. Burdenko and others. Participation of the population in work about-va was expressed to hl. obr. assembled donations. Having money, FATE To gave financial support by the wounded and patient during French-Prussian war of 1870 — 1871, created and sent to field army groups as a part of doctors, sisters and male nurses during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 — 1878, organized hospital in days of Russian-Japanese (1904 — 1905) and World War I (1914 — 1918) of war.

Activity of ROKK in .period Great October socialist revolution and after it was development of a number of the progressive traditions put about-vom during the pre-revolutionary period. In response to sabotage from the management of ROKK Bolsheviks are physicians and the advanced workers created a dignity in Petrograd. groups of the Proletarian Red Cross, and in Moscow — groups of the Working Red Cross, to-rye selflessly rendered medical aid to wounded fighters of revolution. The decree of SNK of January 6, 1918 for the temporary management about-vom created Committee on reorganization Russian about-va Red the Cross, to-rogo representatives In the CPU K, Council of working boards of the Proletarian Red Cross, doctors Bolsheviks A. N. Vinokurov, M. I. Barsukov, L were a part. X. Popov, etc.

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin signed on August 7, 1918 the Resolution of Council of People's Commissars on activity and reorganization of the Russian society of the Red Cross. Measures for its transformation from the philanthropic organization into mass democratic were defined. The decrees signed by V. I. Lenin were the action program of ROKK. From the first days of existence it about-in began to develop as the mass national organization. In 1928 in the ranks of the Soviet Red Cross there were over 1 million members, and in 1959 nearly 30 million.

The decree of SNK of August 7, 1918 was the basis for activity about-va, in Krom it was told: «1. The Russian society of the Red Cross acts on the basis of the Geneva convention of 1864 and other its conventions which followed in development. It is included into the international union of societies of the Red Cross and directly communicates with similar societies of other countries... 3. The Russian society of the Red Cross during war and at national disasters renders all means which are available at its order assistance to governmental medical and sanitary bodies in the help to wounded and patients and prisoners of war, and also the victim of disaster to the population».

In the years of Civil war and foreign intervention of ROKK gave big help to Red Army and the population. It created and directed to fronts various medical institutions — dressing and nutritious points, hospital, anti-epidemic groups and so forth St. 400 institutions about-va participated in service of Red Army. For treatment of patients with a sapropyra more than 30 thousand beds were developed. Along with activity on fronts of Civil war of ROKK held preventive sanitary and recreational events, was engaged in distribution medical and a gigabyte. knowledge among the population, recovery of the destroyed BCs, policlinics, the organization of new drugstores, out-patient clinics, baths, rest houses, kindergartens, a day nursery etc. created 24 TB facilities, 60 venereologic, 16 eye, a large number of groups on fight against malaria. The important place was taken by actions for assistance to the starving areas of the republic and anti-epidemic work.

After education in 1922 the USSR at the initiative of ROKK, about-in Red the Cross of Ukraine, Belarus, Armenia, Georgia and about-va Red Crescent of Azerbaijan in May, 1923 was created the Union about-in Red the Cross and Red Crescent (SOKK and KP) of the USSR and the corresponding declaration is signed (on May 29).

In the 20th thanks to active participation of the general public in public health care about-vom the «Service of health of young pioneers» (including 290 various institutions was created including. An all-Union health resort of pioneers Artek), patronage of rural health care was widely developed. SOKK and KP USSR was an initiator of construction a dignity. aircraft for improvement of medical service of the population of the remote districts of the country. In the next years mass training of nurses of the Red Cross began; at the enterprises and buildings were organized a dignity. posts (see. Sanitary post ) and sandruzhina (see. Druzhina sanitary ). To the middle of the 30th in connection with successful development of the Soviet health care need for existence of medical institutions for the SOKK and KP USSR system therefore by the end of 1938 to NKZ USSR and public health service of Red Army it was transferred 6111 being available on hand about-va various lechebnoprofilaktichesky and other institutions disappeared. Members dignity. posts and sandruzhin participated under the direction of SES and other healthcare institutions in holding preventive and anti-epidemic actions. School students had training according to the «Be Ready to Sanitary Defense» program (see « »). The adult population studied methods of rendering the first medical aid according to the «It Is Ready to Sanitary Defense» program of I and II degrees.

From the first days of the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945) hundreds of thousands of nurses, sandruzhinnitsa, hospital attendants and other activists of SOKK and KP USSR left on the front, worked in hospitals, for a dignity. transport, rendered the first medical aid to the population, the victim of plaques of enemy aircraft, cared for disabled veterans, orphan children, families of veterans. Committees about-in prepared on courses apprx. 280 thousand nurses, from them more than 100 thousand received necessary preparation within the first year of war. The St. 450 thousand sandruzhinnitsa and apprx. 40 thousand hospital attendants took part in rescue of life of wounded and sick soldiers, except nurses. Pupils of SOKK and KP USSR showed mass heroism at rescue of wounded, thousands of caused a stir are noted by high government awards, 17 people ranks of the Hero of the Soviet Union are awarded (see. Physicians are Heroes of the Soviet Union ).

38 pupils about-va, participants of the Great Patriotic War, are awarded by the International Committee of the Red Cross the medal «Florence Naytingeyl» (see. F. Naytingeyl ). At the call of the Soviet Red Cross for years of war apprx. 5,5 million donors gave the blood for rescue of life of soldiers.

Importance in providing a dignity. wellbeing of the country in the years of war had participation of the public in identification and elimination of shortcomings in a dignity. a condition of the inhabited places, and also participation in the prevention inf. diseases. At the industrial enterprises, in collective farms, state farms and on other rear objects more than 800 thousand sanpost for rendering the first medical aid at injuries functioned, overseeing by purity of territories of the enterprises, for care of victims during the bombings. Thanks to the dedicated and coordinated work of medical institutions of the front and back, including a dignity. - epid. groups of SOKK and KP USSR, it was succeeded to avoid epidemics during war.

In post-war years, during construction of the developed socialist society SOKK and KP became stronger organizationally, expanded network of primary organizations, its contacts with bodies of health care were strengthened, number a dignity increased. an asset, quality of its preparation increased. The decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of May 13, 1967 of SOKK and KP USSR for big merits in assistance to the Soviet health care, active participation in fight for peace and in connection with the 100 anniversary from the date of foundation of Society in our country it is awarded by the Order of Lenin.

SOKK and KP USSR is under construction on a territorial proizvodstvenn to ohm to a sign. A basis about-in are primary organizations created in the place of work and study, and for the unemployed (housewives, pensioners, etc.) — at the place of residence. Direct work about-in their central committees elected at republican congresses. Directs and coordinates work of all 15 republican about-in Executive committee of SOKK and KP USSR, to-ry it is chosen at the all-Union congresses convened each 5 years. Between congresses at least once a year the executive committee convenes plenums. For the leadership in daily work about-va during the period between plenums the executive committee elects Presidium of Executive committee of SOKK and KP USSR.

Funds of SOKK and KP USSR consist of entrance and membership dues, and also means arriving from individuals, the organizations and from his collective members — the enterprises, institutions, state farms and collective farms. These means are spent for rendering financial support to the population of our country and other states, to the victim of natural disasters; on payment of lump sums to persons in need, keeping of patronage nurses; training; edition of sanitary and educational and educational and methodical literature, creation of movies; holding congresses, plenums, meetings, meetings and other actions.

One of the main directions of activity of SOKK and KP USSR is participation a dignity now. an asset in the current supervision for a dignity. a condition of the industrial enterprises, objects of page - x. productions, cultural and community institutions, educational institutions and child care facilities, objects of public catering and trade (see. Public health inspector ).

Committees and the SOKK and KP USSR organizations together with healthcare institutions will organize preparation a dignity. an asset on prevention of infectious and other diseases, on fight against unhealthy habits, on patient care at home. Ob-va together with bodies of health care and GO participate in preparation sandruzhin (a dignity. posts) and training of the population in rendering the first medical aid. Sandruzhina (sanposta) render the first medical aid by the victim in cases of accidents on production, at natural disasters, participate in sanitary and recreational work at the enterprises, in state farms and collective farms. At the most important highways of the country work road a dignity. the posts rendering the first medical aid by the victim in accidents and accidents.

Ob-va by forces of patronage nurses (see. Patronage ) give medico-social help to lonely aged patients, first of all disabled veterans and work. Also the activists who received special preparation take part in this work. Primary organizations about-in together with medics will organize training of the population according to the program of patient care at home. Annually St. 2 million people have such training.

SOKK and KP USSR carries out work on an explanation of value of hemotransfusion and donorship (see), to involvement of the population to gratuitous donorship, publishes in the mass editions of the brochure, leaflet, posters, organizes meetings of donors.

In the tenth five-years period in comparison with the ninth it is gratuitously received blood twice bigger. Almost twice the number of patients increased, at treatment to-rykh donor blood and its drugs were used.

Donors stand deserved high in esteem and respect, are awarded with diplomas, the badges «Donor of the USSR», the sign «Honourable Donor of the USSR» (see. Donor ).

The organizations about-in participate in a gigabyte. education and medical - a dignity. to training of pupils, and also in holding preventive and sanitarnoozdorovitelny actions in educational institutions, student's construction groups, summer camps. Educational institutions work medical - a dignity. circles, are created clubs «Young Physician», preparation a dignity is conducted. posts and dignity. activists for work in student's construction groups. Committees and the organizations about-in participate in All-Union pioneer military sports.

The central committee of societies, committees, primary organizations, workers and activists of SOKK and KP USSR for a big contribution to development of activity of public organization, achievement of high rates in work, performance of plan targets and socialist obligations, long-term, faultless service in the Union of societies are awarded with the Medal of the Soviet Red Cross, the breastplate «the Veteran of the Soviet Red Cross», a desktop medal of N. I. Pirogov, the Diploma of Executive committee of SOKK and KP USSR, etc.

The important place in activity of primary organizations and committees about-in is occupied by promotion among the population medical and a dignity. - a gigabyte. knowledge, moral ethical standards of behavior, principles of socialist humanity.

Ob-you textbooks, uchebnometodichesky and visual aids, brochures, booklets, posters, instructions, cards, souvenir editions, movies are annually published in the mass editions. Production of movies together with national about - you the Red Cross of the socialist countries is carried out, copies of movies in foreign languages are made and also developing countries, the international organizations go as a gift in socialist. In printing editions and movies extended coverage is received by questions of prevention inf. diseases and injuries, personal and public hygiene, fight against addictions, environmental control, hemotransfusion and donorship, a healthy lifestyle, the international activity of the Soviet Red Cross etc.

Medical - a dignity. knowledge is widely propagandized with use of channels of mass information, and also large-circulation and wall newspapers, corners of health, thematic constants and mobile exhibitions.

The executive committee of SOKK and KP USSR issues the Soviet Red Cross magazine enjoying wide popularity at the population. In Moscow the Museum of the Soviet Red Cross acquainting visitors with history, stages of development and modern activity of the Union of Societies works.

The purposes and the principles of peace-loving foreign policy of the USSR are the basis for the international activity of the Soviet Red Cross. SOKK and KP USSR gives help to victims of wars and natural disasters to the people of other countries, sending them a dignity. groups, specialists and money. The foundation of this activity was laid by an action of the help after Great October socialist revolution as to the Russian prisoners of war who was in Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and the German, Austro-Hungarian and Turkish prisoners of war arriving to Russia. The essential role was played by humane missions of ROKK in establishment of trust, mutual understanding between the young Republic of Councils and other states, in distribution of accurate information on the peaceful purposes of the Soviet state. Performances of delegations about-va at the international conferences of the Red Cross had positive value.

In 1934 SOKK and KP USSR it was admitted to League of societies of the Red Cross p Red Crescent (LOKK and KP).

The international activity of SOKK and KP USSR is directed to fight for expansion of participation of the International Red Cross in fight for peace and disarmament. The action program of the Red Cross as factor of the world, developed with the participation of SOKK and KG1 USSR and about-in Red the Cross of the socialist countries and accepted by the World conference «Red Cross and World» (1975, Belgrade), played an important role in activation of activity of the national and international organizations of the Red Cross in defense of peace.

SOKK and KP USSR and national about-va socialist the countries achieved acceptance at the international forums of resolutions «the Mission of the Red Cross», «Weapons of mass destruction», «The world and disarmament», etc., in to-rykh the aspiration national is approved about-in to defend a discharge, to prohibit weapons of mass destruction, to prevent emergence of the military conflicts, to direct efforts to strengthening of the world and friendship between the people. At the XXIV International conference of the Red Cross (1981, Manila) the resolutions concerning dissemination of knowledge about international humanitarian law and respect of its principles are unanimously approved.

Fulfilling the international duty, the Union of societies gives medico-social help to the population of the freed countries both on a bilateral basis, and within activity of LOKK and KP. At the initiative of SOKK and KP USSR the General Assembly of League adopted the resolution, on a basis the cut was developed the plan of the help about - to you the Red Cross and Red Crescent of developing countries in implementation primary medical - a dignity. help.

SOKK and KP SSSR, being guided by the principles of humanity and international solidarity, gives free aid to the people and national about - to you the countries, injured natural disasters, epidemics, armed conflicts, and also to the victims of reactionary systems. The direction to this country under the auspices of the International Committee of the Red Cross of two Soviet medical groups (1980 — 1981) became an effective action of the help to the People's Republic of Kampuchea that was highly appreciated by the Kampuchean people and the government. In a number of the countries successfully work to lay down. the SOKK and KP USSR institutions which are carrying out scheduled and medical and diagnostic maintenance in large volume. The Soviet doctors abroad hold deserved authority. The executive committee of SOKK and KP USSR at the request of the Soviet government carries out cooperation with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) where actively supports increased assistance to children and mothers of developing countries.

Constantly cooperation with national about - you the Red Cross of the socialist countries extends. Annual advisory meetings of heads national about-in became tradition, on to-rykh positions on different questions of the international krasnokrestny movement are discussed and coordinated.

With about - you the Red Cross of Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, GDR, Cuba, Laos, Mongolia, Czechoslovakia signed the agreements on bilateral cooperation providing exchange of information materials, exhibitions, printing editions, movies, coproduction of movies, release of literature, the organization of competitions, festivals.

See also Geneva conventions , Health care , Sanitary education .

Bibliography: M. I badgers. Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR, M., 1955, bibliogr.; Kuzmin M. K. Mercy, courage, humanity, M., 1980, bibliogr.; About with t and l with to and y Yu. P. and B of au g about r about d c to E. V willow. Soviet Red Cross, M., 1981; From a congress to a congress, 1971 — 1976, under the editorship of N. I. Chikalenko, M., 1976; 50 years on service of health and the world, Materials for lectures and conversations in the organizations of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR, under the editorship of N. I. Chikalenko, M., 1973; The Soviet Red Cross in fight for sanitary culture and human health, M., 1981, bibliogr.; Hundred years of the Red Cross in our country, under the editorship of G. A. Miterev, M., 1967; Cherkassk L. I. International activity of the Soviet Red Cross, M., 1983.

V. A. Baltiysky.