UGANDA, the Republic of Uganda — the state in East Africa as a part of the Commonwealth (it is shaven.). Territory of 241,1 thousand sq.km. Population of 13 million people (1981). Capital of Kampala (477 thousand people, 1981). Ofits.
language — Swahili and English. Administratively the country of times
of a delen on 4 areas: Western,
Buganda, East and Northern.
By the time of colonization At. several feudal states developed Europeans in its territory. In 1900 England imposed to these states contracts on protectorate. The people At. conducted persistent anti-colonial fight, edges gained especially wide scope after World War II. On October 9, 1962 Uganda received the status of the dominion,-ry by October 9, 1963 was liquidated. At. became the independent sovereign state, the republic it is proclaimed on September 8, 1967. The head of state — the president. The legislature belongs to parliament.
Climate At. an ekvatorialyyu-monsoon-ny, summer and wet, softened with height of the area above sea level. The rainy season (usually with two maxima of rainfall) proceeds to 10. from the equator from September to May, to S. — from March to November. Average temperature of year apprx. 20 °.
At. — the agrarian country with poorly developed economy. The leading place in commodity agriculture is taken by export cultures — cotton, coffee, tea. Pages are grown up - x. cultures for internal consumption. The industry is presented generally by the enterprises for processing of page - x. raw materials. There is a steel works, the plants on production of cement, mineral fertilizers, the textile enterprises. Gradually the share of public sector in national economy increases.
The population of the country is presented generally by nationalities of Bogande, iteso, to the banyankola, a basoga, etc.
Vital rates, according to WHO, for 1980 — 1984: birth rate 44,6,
mortality 12,8, a natural increase 31,8 for 1000 of the population. Child mortality — 93,8 on 1000 live-born. The average duration of the forthcoming life of men — 53,2, women — 56,8 years.
In pathology of the population the leading place is taken inf. and parasitic diseases. One of the most widespread parasitic diseases is malaria, number of the registered cases a cut in 1981 made 70 520. Within 1979 — 1981 in the country the trypanosomiasis, hl was regularly registered. obr. in coastal districts of the Lake Victoria (1227 cases in 1981). Are eurysynusic went. - kish. infections. In 1978 and 1980 in zap. districts At. the outbreaks of cholera were registered. In 1981 in the country 1680 cases of a typhoid and a pas-ratifov, 58 cases inf were registered. hepatitis, 929 cases of a pulmonary tuberculosis, 1058 cases of a leprosy and other diseases. Among nurseries inf. diseases in 1981 16 119 cases of measles, 3844 cases of whooping cough, 2176 cases of chicken pox and 121 fresh cases of poliomyelitis are registered.
The health service in the country is headed by the Ministry of Health. In subordination at the Minister of Health — the constant secretary, to-ry directs development of health service in the country and otvetstven for its functioning.
In 1981 in the country there were 485 medical institutions on
19 782 beds (15,2 on 10 thousand population), from them 410 institutions (on
13 705 beds) were under authority of the state. From total number of institutions — BC of the general type and rural * BC 75 on 12 652 beds, the centers of health care 404 on 5861 beds, 5 leper colonies on 312 beds and 1 psychiatric-tsa on 957 beds. Extra-hospital help was given in polyclinic departments of BC, in the centers of health care, out-patient clinics and in their branches.
The name and content of work of healthcare institutions At. not always corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
In 1981 in the country 611 doctors (0,47 for 10 thousand population), 626 assistants to doctors, 17 stomatologists, 27 druggists, 6778 nurses, including nurses - aku-sherok, 100 technicians-laboratory assistants, 121 X-ray technicians and other specialists worked.
Five institutions in the country conduct medicobiological researches: Scientific research institute on studying of viruses, the Ugandiysky research organization for studying of a trypanosomiasis, Ugandiysky in-t of cancer, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (MAIR), Research laboratory of natural chemotherapy (traditional medicine).
Training of doctors is carried out at medical school un-that Makerere, also locates regions conditions for improvement in the field of therapy, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, ophthalmology. Annual release of doctors apprx. the 100th persons. There are also conditions for training of paramedical staff of various categories. Bibliography: The countries and the people, Africa, East and South Africa, under the editorship of Yu. V. Bromley, page 82, M., 1981; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 79, Geneva, 1981; World development report, 1980, p. 144, Washington, 1980; World health statistics annual, 1983, p. 364 a. o., Geneva, 1983.
A. A. Rozov.