TYPES OF HIGHER NERVOUS ACTIVITY — set of the main properties of the highest departments of the central nervous system (force of nervous processes, their mobility and steadiness) characterizing inborn specific features of higher nervous activity of the person and animals.
The concept «types of higher nervous activity» was entered by I. P. Pavlov. He considered that force of nervous processes is defined by the level of operability of nervous cells, degree of steadiness — a ratio excitement (see) and braking (see), and mobility — speed of their emergence and termination. The combination of these properties, their ratio characterize a nervous system of the specific person or an animal and define type it higher nervous activity (see).
Originally in experiments on dogs four main types of century of N of were allocated. The first type (strong, balanced, mobile) is characterized by the strong processes of excitement and braking counterbalanced among themselves and differing in high mobility. At animals with such type of century of N of are quickly developed both positive, and negative conditioned reflexes (see), to-rye are easily remade from one in another. At the same time animals adequately react to prearranged signals and their bystry change, easily maintain change of a stereotype, are active, sociable, easily give in to training.
The second type (strong, balanced, inert) is characteristic of animals with strong processes of excitement and braking, to-rye are also counterbalanced among themselves, but proceed slowly. Conditioned reflexes at animals with such type of century of N of are developed slowly and remade hardly. The developed stereotype differs in firmness, its destruction is followed by strong emotional pressure; animals are usually sluggish.
The third type (strong, unbalanced, impetuous) is characterized by strong processes of excitement and braking, but processes of excitement prevail. At animals with such type of century of N of positive conditioned reflexes and slowly — negative are quickly developed; animals differ in fussiness, a low threshold of emergence of approximate and research reaction (see), aggression, difficult give in to training. At such animals experimental neurosis rather easily forms (see. Neurosises experimental ).
Animals with the fourth type of century of N of (weak) differ in weakness of processes of excitement and braking. Their positive and negative conditioned reflexes are hardly developed, and the developed reflexes are characterized by fragility, instability (under influence even of minor changes of the environment positive conditioned reflexes are easily oppressed, and negative — rastormazhivatsya); alteration of conditioned reflexes is extremely complicated. Such animals are coward; at them experimental neurosises most often are registered (I. P. Pavlov of animals with such type of century of N of called «suppliers» of experimental neurosises).
There is a certain analogy between the Pavlovsk types of century of N of and four types, known since Hippocrates temperament (see). So, the strong balanced mobile type of century of N of corresponds to sanguine temperament, strong balanced inert — flegmatichesky, strong unbalanced — choleric, weak — to melancholic temperament. Hippocrates's ideas of temperaments were widely used by psychologists for the characteristic of individual predisposition of people to «the sincere movements», to the Crimea, e.g., psychologists of 19 century referred affects and aspirations. However during the dopavlovsky period all attempts to classify people by the nature of their behavior were not based on strictly scientific objective research and therefore could not be used in psychology and medicine for the solution of questions of influence of character and specific features on the course of psychological and other diseases of the person.
Except the main four types of century of N of, are available intermediate, to the Crimea, e.g., according to P. S. Ku-palovu, animals treat with strong processes of excitement and braking, but with dominance of the last; animals with strong (inert) process of excitement; animals with strong process of excitement and very weak braking. Especially large number of variations is described for weak type of century of N of.
There is a number of methodical methods of definition of types of century of N of directed to detection of the main properties of nervous processes, i.e. excitement and braking. It is considered that bystry development of positive and negative conditioned reflexes indicates force of the basic nervous processes, and their slow development and instability — weakness of these processes. Force of process of excitement is estimated on reaction to strengthening of intensity of a positive conditioned excitator, edges at animals with strong type of century of N of is shown by increase of stability of a conditioned reflex and well transferred by animals; at very high intensity of an irritant ultraboundary braking develops (see. Braking ). With weak type of century of N of even insignificant strengthening of an irritant causes ultraboundary braking in animals, and is frequent also experimental neurosis. During the determination of force of excitement often previously increase excitability of a brain (e.g., by preliminary starvation or introduction by an animal of caffeine) and on this background investigate reactions of an animal to irritants of a certain force. In this case at invariable intensity of a conditioned excitator the susceptibility of a brain to it changes — animals with strong and weak types of century of N of have effects similar the aforesaid.
Determination of force of brake process is made by lengthening of time of action of a negative conditioned excitator that strengthens tension of internal inhibition. Animals with strong type of century of N of easily transfer such influence (on a nek-eye to data, up to 6 min.) whereas with weak type of century of N of lengthening of action of a brake irritant even for several seconds causes deep braking in animals, and also the condition of experimental neurosis is frequent. About force of brake process judge also by its ability to bystry and full concentration.
Property of steadiness of nervous processes is defined by a ratio of positive and negative conditioned reflexes during their formation; considerable dominance of one over others testifies to disbalance of nervous processes.
Mobility of nervous processes is determined by method of alteration of a positive conditioned reflex in negative, frequent change of these reflexes with small time frames or change of a stereotype. In all cases animals with high mobility of nervous processes easily transfer such influence, and animals with small mobility — hardly that it is used for formation of experimental neurosis.
The doctrine about types of century of N of created by I. P. Pavlov on the basis of the experimental analysis of behavior of animals was applied at a research of uslovnoreflektorny activity of the person. At the same time four types of century of N of, the general for animals and the person, and three types specific to the person caused by existence at it the first and second alarm systems (see) were allocated. Thanks to the first alarm system the outside world is perceived in the form of direct impressions of the various irritants influencing on receptors (see). The second alarm system provides understanding of the outside world in a pictorial-verbal form. Proceeding from it I. P. Pavlov allocated people with dominance of the first alarm system (art oozes) and with dominance of the second alarm system (cogitative type). The third type of century of N of is made by the people counterbalanced in the relation of both the first, and second alarm system. People of art type of century of N of show inclination for music, painting, reading fiction, to drawing; it is shown since the early childhood, and with age amplifies. People of cogitative type of century of N of are inclined to abstract thinking, to philosophy.
The type of century of N of reflects only inborn properties of a nervous system making constitutional features of nervous activity (see. Constitution ), i.e. a genotype, but not properties acquired under the influence of the environment. Therefore century of N of of the person and animals is alloy of the lines like (genotype) and changes acquired under influence from the outside (from the environment). I. P. Pavlov defined this alloy as a phenotype of century of N of (its character, a warehouse). There is no direct parallelism between type of century of N of and a behavior pattern, but a certain type in, the N of is that soil, on a cut that forms pl other behavior.
Further studying of a problem of types of century of N of demands development of new methods of definition of these or those properties of a nervous system. Besides, not always characteristics of properties of a nervous system at its studying by different methods match that indicates limited opportunities of the existing approaches to assessment of integral properties of a nervous system.
Features of types of higher nervous activity at children
Definition like century of N of at children is important for elaboration of the correct approach to the solution of pedagogical and medical tasks. In general properties ooze of century of N of of the child are similar to century properties of N of of the adult, however there are distinctions in the level of its maturing. Researches of types of century of N of at children shall answer a question in what degree individual indicators of century of N of of the child can be the basis for diagnosis of types of century and. of the adult. It is obvious that at detection at children's age of weakness and inertness of nervous processes holding effective educational actions promotes adaptation of an organism to conditions of the environment.
In 1917. I. I. Krasnogorsky on the basis of a research of motive food conditioned reflexes allocated type of century and. at children which is characterized by snizheiny mobility of process of braking. The subsequent studying of conditioned reflexes at children, the analysis of processes of the speech pulled together I. I approaches. Krasnogorsk and I. P. Pavlova to assessment of types of century of N of the versatile characteristics of sanguine, flegmatichesky, choleric and melancholic types considering the speed of education, fading and recovery of conditioned reflexes, their compliance to the law of force and speed Were given; durability and differentiation of brake reactions, duration of brake phases at development of hypnotic states; recovery rate of an optimum vozbudimssta; the size of instinctive reflexes etc.
A. G. Ivanov-Smolensk allocated four main types of switching function of bark: labile (bystry education as positive. and brake conditioned connections), excitable (bystry formation of positive bonds and slow — brake), brake (slow formation of positive bonds and bystry — brake), inertial (slow formation of bonds of both types). During the definition like switching activity by means of various techniques of conditioned reflexes (approximate, food, defensive) at a part of children discrepancy of typological characteristics was revealed that was considered by A. G. Ivanov-Smolensk as a possibility of existence of «disgarmonichesky» neurotype. Experimental studying of interaction of the first and second alarm systems showed four options: adequate transfer of conditioned connections from the first alarm system in the second and in the opposite direction, inadequate transfer in both directions, adequate transfer in one of two directions and inadequate — in another.
Diagnostic methods of types of century of N of demand further specification and improvement from children — check of a number of the indirect indicators offered for definition of constitutional and typological accessory (the characteristic of respiratory and cardiovascular system, EEG, etc.).
The important characteristic like century of N of of the child is his behavior, style of activity. Observation both in usual, and in non-standard, «extreme» matters, conditions, in to-rykh typological features can be shown most brightly as are not disguised by earlier developed and already strengthened bonds. The ratio at children like century is of special interest and. and somatic constitutional features. Between these options of typology reliable correlations are found.
Researches of types of century of N of at children confirmed the maximum resistance to development of neurosises in persons of sanguine temperament. The excitable type, and to sluggish with insufficient vegetative and protective mobilization — brake type is predisposed to a rapid current of infections and intoxications. By consideration of a pathogeny and ways of prevention of diseases at children's age it is necessary to consider T. century of N of E.g., children with strong, balanced and mobile type of century of N of are with other things being equal steadier against development of diseases, in an origin to-rykh corticovisceral mechanisms, and in cases of the expressed genetic predisposition — to their more favorable current matter.
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M. M. Hananashvili; A. I. Kliorin (ped.).