TURKEY, Type of c of Kai Re with - public — the state in the west of Asia and the southeast of Europe. The area is 780,6 thousand sq.km. The most part of the territory (apprx. 97%) is on the peninsula Asia Minor (Anatoly), smaller (apprx. 3%) — in Europe (East Thrace).
Asian and European parts of the country are divided by the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus Straits and Dardanelles. The population — St. 45,2 million people (a census of 1980, the specified data). The capital — Ankara (the St. 2,8 million zhit., without suburbs, 1980). The largest city — Istanbul (2,9 million zhit. without suburbs, 1980). Administrative division — 67 Ils (vilayets), to-rye, in turn, share on 591 or-che (county). Ofits. language — Turkish.
On September 12, 1980 in Turkey there was a military coup. All completeness of the power in the country passed to National Security council (SPB). It was suspended the constitution of 1961, the parliament and the government are dismissed. Functions of the president were executed by the chairman of SNB. On October 19, 1982 SNB adopted the new constitution, became effective edges after the national referendum on November 7, 1982. The head of state — the president. The legislature belongs to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (parliament). Executive power is carried out by the president of the republic and Council of ministers.
T. — the highland lying within uplands Of Asia Minor and partially Armenian Highlands. Sowing. and yuzh. coast are cut a little up, zap. the coast abounds with gulfs. Climate subtropical with big contrasts of temperature and humidity.
T. — the agrarian-industrial country where remnants of feudalism still remained. In agriculture it is engaged apprx. 60% of the amateur population. Agriculture — the main industry of economy giving apprx. 2/3 costs of page - x. products. Apprx. 80% of cultivated area it is busy with grain crops, preferential wheat and barley. An important role is played by commercial crops (a cotton, tobacco, sugar beet, flax, hemp). Livestock production — the industry of agriculture, the second for importance. Apprx. V3 of the territory it is busy with meadows and pastures; the woods borrow apprx. 20 million hectares. Fishery is developed.
Apprx. 82% of cost of industrial output it is the share of manufacturing industry, cover the most developed industries — food, textile, construction materials and chemical. Fundamentals of power — black and brown coal, and also oil. Extraction of chromites, borates, antimony, iron, volfrakhmo-vy, manganese and copper ores, bauxites, sulfurs is conducted.
The main population is made by Turks (apprx. 90%), Kurds, Arabs, manholes, Georgians, etc. Average population density 57,9 people on 1 sq.km (1980). Vital rates in 1980 — 1984 (according to the estimated data published by WHO in 1983): birth rate — 33,6, the general mortality — 9,3, a natural increase — 24,3 on 1000 people; child mortality — 114,2 on 1000 live-born. The average duration of the forthcoming life made 60,3 years at men and women have 64,9 years. Statistics of causes of death incomplete, however, on the published materials of 1976, in the main towns of Ils in structure of mortality are z and about l e in and N iya with ER d echn about on the first place - with about with at day of t about ii
of system, .zaty diseases of a respiratory organs, malignant new growths etc.
In structure of incidence infectious and parasitic diseases prevail. The problem of fight against these diseases becomes complicated insufficiency of food, from to-rogo suffers to 40% of the population of nek-ry districts of the country.
In 1981 most often were registered malaria — 54 415 cases, tuberculosis (all forms) —-39 992, measles — 26 858, trachoma —
19 595, infectious hepatitis — 14 015, a typhoid and paratyphus — 7360, other salmonellezny infections — 46 105, other food poisonings (bacterial toxicoinfections) — 8001, streptococcal quinsy and scarlet fever — 1988, an echinococcus — 1542, amoebas a groove ■ — 1421, viral encephalitis — 1257, tetanus — 1082, gonorrhea — 843, poliomyelitis — 775, a brucellosis — 521, syphilis — 513, to a meningokokka va I
am an infection — 418, a malignant anthrax — 397, a leprosy — 256. Recently growth of incidence caused by environmental pollution is noted. Among elderly people incidence of malignant new growths and defeats of vessels of a brain increases.
The management medical - a dignity. services carries out the Ministry for Health and Social Welfare. The deputy state secretary is subordinated to the minister, to-ry knows questions of health care. It has 5 assistants, the Crimea the CEOs heading various departments of the ministry are subordinated.
In each silt (vilayet) there is a director of health care appointed by the minister. Administratively he is subordinated to the governor, and performs special functions under the direction of the Ministry of Health. It is responsible for all services of public health care.
In the Ministry of Health there is a department of improvement of the environment, in provinces — sections of hygiene of the environment; on places this work is conducted by the centers of health care and government doctors.
Lack of administrative structure of public services of health care of T. their dissociation is. Various ministries and institutions have own services of medical aid.
In 1981 in T. there would be 831 on 97 765 beds (21 on 10 000 inhabitants), including 438 BCs (on 69 606 beds) — the general type, 287 rural BCs (on 3695 beds), 46 maternity homes (on 5845 beds), infectious-tsa (on 100 beds), 2 oncological (on 350 beds), 3 dermatovenerologichesky (on 120 beds), 3 ophthalmologic (on 95 beds), 4 orthopedic (on 1350 beds),-tsa for rabid treatment (50 beds), 35 tubercular (on 9710 beds), 9 psychiatric BCs (on 6529 beds) and 2 leper colonies (on 315 beds).
Medical institutions in T. are under authority of various departments: bodies of health care,
social security, universities, other organizations and individuals. From total number of hospitals 707 (on 90 549 beds) there were state, 29 BCs (on 3218 beds) — private noncommercial, 95 BCs (on 3998 beds) — private commercial.
The Vnebolyshchiy help (1978) okazyvalas in polyclinic departments of BC, in offices of doctors of a private practice, in 255 antitubercular clinics, in 41 tracheomatous clinics, in 16 clinics for treatment of patients with a leprosy and syphilis,
in 8 psychiatric out-patient clinics, and also 38 mobile rentgenol. crews. Service of mothers and children was carried out
in 128 centers and 71 points of protection of motherhood and the childhood. Was available apprx. 600 points on planning
of a family; 35 nursing homes on 4310 beds.
V T. the reorganization of health services aimed first of all at the development along with medical preventive services, especially in rural districts is carried out. The main institutions of new system are the centers of health care servicing
from 7500 to 10 000 people 3 — 4 points of health care servicing 2500 — 3000 people are attached to each of to-rykh. In the center of health care the crew as a part of the doctor, nurses, midwifes, the sanitary technical worker and the medical secretary shall work. In point — one midwife. The main functions of the centers of health care are treatment and prevention inf. diseases, immunization, protection of motherhood and the childhood, including planning of a family, a dignity. education, control of hygiene of the environment and maintaining the statistical account. In 1978 there were 1543 centers and 5808 points of health care. The same year new health services captured 42% of the population living in 40 Ils. On the old system functioning in 27 Ils in everyone the government doctor responsible for the organization works to lay down. - the prof. of work and the court performing also functions. - the medical expert; under its management in villages obstetric points work. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of T. not always correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
V T. there is a system of insurance on a case of a disease, a cut is captured apprx. 6 million people (public servants, and also the persons working on hiring). Drugs for treatment inf. bolezny and the medical aid to the population of rural districts rendered in the centers and points of health care, and also it are provided to the poorest layers of urban population free of charge.
Territory of T. it is rich natural to lay down. resources, on base to-rykh numerous resorts function: climatic mountain, dirt
to the Vyya and balneal with mineral waters of various chemical structure (sulphidic, including thermal, carbonic and sodium, chloride sodium, radonic, etc.). The most known balneol. resorts — Armutlu, Bursa, Dzhemluk Ilikazi (on the coast of the Sea of Marmara), Davut Chermigi (in Northern Anatoly), Hyman, Kyzyldzha to boors (in the neighborhood of Ankara), Ilydzha-Cher-mikleri, Pazinler (near Erzurum), Tuzla Ichmeleri (near Istanbul), etc.
V of 1981 in T. there were 28 411 doctors (6, 3 on 10 Ltd companies of inhabitants), 6790 dentists, 11 610 druggists,
14 096 midwifes, 22 998 nurses, 7511 assistants to nurses, the 5th dignity. engineers, 6258th dignity. inspectors, 578 assistants to health inspectors, 481 laboratory assistants.
A considerable part of all doctors lives in three largest cities of the country (Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir).
According to the law of 1978 medical - a dignity. to the personnel working in public sector, the private practice is prohibited. In 1978 in public sector 65% of doctors, 35% of dentists and 29% of druggists worked.
Training of doctors is carried out on 16 medical f-takh high fur boots, is available also 8 f-tov on training of druggists and dentists. Nurses are trained in 38 colleges of public health care (a 4-year course after 8 years of training at high school) and 3 higher schools of nurse business (university level of training). Midwifes (a 4-year course) study in 6 colleges of health care, rural midwifes — at 19 schools of health care (5 years of training after 5 classes of elementary school). In the country train also paramedical staff of other categories.
Scientific research is conducted by hl. obr. on a medical f-takh of high fur boots. Researches in the field of health care are conducted by National school of public health care. On research activity, especially on problems of public health care, limited means will be assigned.
Bibliography: The countries and the people, Foreign Asia, the General review, Southwest Asia, under the editorship of Yu. V. Bromley, page 150, M., 1979; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world, 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 352, Geneva, WHO, 1981; Health services in Europe, v. 2, p. 191, Copenhagen, 1981.
E. V. Galakhov.