TSUNAMI, delivery of health care by the victim. C. — sea waves of a seismic or volcanic origin of big length and height.
C. arise at strong underwater or coastal earthquakes as a result of movement up or down extensive sites of a bottom, is more rare — owing to volcanic eruptions and other tectonic processes. Bystry increase or lowering of the level of a surface of the ocean turns into oscillating motions of thicknesses of water and leads to formation of a tsunami. This type of natural disasters most of all strikes Japanese and Hawaiian
of the island, Chile, and in the USSR — the coast of Kamchatka, Kuril and Commander Islands. In general apprx. 80% of a tsunami it is observed on the periphery of the Pacific Ocean, including the western slope of the Kurilo-Kamchatsky trench. C. represent a series from
3 — 9 waves extending with a speed from 50 to 1000 km/h (~ 14 — 280 m! sec.), bucketed 10 — 30 min. and distance between the next crests of waves from 5 to 1500 km. Height of a wave in the field of its emergence fluctuates ranging from ODES to 5 m, but at the coast it can reach (in sites, adverse on a relief) from 10 to 50 m and more. C. it is necessary to carry to natural disasters (see), they lead to devastating destructions on the land, to considerable losses of material values and the human victims. So, in 1883 at a volcanic eruption of Krakatau (Zondsky islands) of a wave of C. reached 20-meter height, at the same time hundreds of villages, crops, the woods, roads were destroyed, died and were wounded apprx. 36 thousand persons.
The major dignity. the effects caused by C., are: a large number of the drowned and persons with various traumatic damages; increase in quantity of diseases of pneumonia with a high lethality and the freezing injuries connected with overcooling (see Cooling of an organism); aggravation various hron. diseases; growth of number and weighting of a current cardiovascular, psychological and inf. diseases, emergence in a considerable part of the population of a psychological overstrain, deterioration dignity. - a gigabyte. and sanitary and epidemic condition of the affected region.
In the USSR, the USA, Japan, etc. services of the warning of the population of approach of a tsunami are created.
For rescue of life of people it is necessary to organize search of victims as soon as possible, complexity to-rogo is aggravated with the fact that many of them can be carried away in the sea by the leaving wave. All means conducting search (aircraft, vessels of various class), shall participate in rescue operations, delivery of victims to areas where help and treatment can be given them, conditions for heating, physical and mental rest are created.
All are involved in rendering medical aid and treatment local to lay down. - the prof. of establishment, and if necessary and forces of health service of Civil protection (see).
See also Earthquake, the Flood.
Bibliography: Altunin A. T. Formi
a rovaniye of civil protection in disaster management, M., 1978; M at r-t and T. S. Seismic sea waves of a tsunami, the lane with English, JI., 1981, bibliogr.; Ponyavin I. D. Waves of a tsunami, L., 1965, bibliogr.; Pyaskovskiyr. Century and K. S Wild orange. Floods, L., 1982.
O. S. Lobastov, V. I. Medvedev.