TROPICAL DERMATOSIS —
group various by origin and clinic of the skin diseases which are most often meeting in the countries with tropical climate.
Etc. take an important place in structure of incidence of the population of the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
Distinguish tropical pyodermas, tropical mycoses, a tropical phytodermatosis, a tropical pruritic dermatosis, tropical mioses (see Miaza), a dermatomyositis (see Dermatozoonoses), the Brazilian exfoliative pemphigus, the Peruvian wart (see the Bartonellosis), damages of skin at helminthoses — filariases (see), cysticercoses (see), ankilostomi-doses (see), damages of skin at infectious and parasitic diseases (see the Amebiasis, the Brucellosis, Diphtheria, Jieyshmaniozy, Jiepra, Malaria., Melioidosis, Nome, Sap, to Sodo-k, Toxoplasmosis, Tularemia, etc.).
Carry to tropical pyodermas pioz Munson, a tropical vesicular acrodermatitis, tropical ulcers. Pioz Munson (a tropical contagious pemphigus, tropical violent impetigo, monkey smallpox), the activator to-rogo usually is golden or white and hemolitic staphylococcus is (much more rare), represents the acute inflammatory disease of skin meeting more often at children and women. Big disease outbreaks during a season of downpours at the people living near the marshy jungle are described. On face skin, a trunk and extremities multiple pustular and violent rashes usually develop, to-rye in several days are opened with formation of erosion. The general condition of patients usually is not broken, only at extensive defeats fervescence, an indisposition is possible. Duration of a disease
is up to 2 — 3 weeks. Pustular and violent elements open with a sterile needle or tweezers and process antiseptic agents; at extensive defeats appoint antibiotics inside. Forecast favorable. Prevention consists in observance a dignity. - a gigabyte. rules of care of skin, in processing of microtraumas disinfecting solutions.
The tropical vesicular acrodermatitis is caused by streptococci and is characterized by emergence of vezikulopustulezny rashes against the background of edematous consolidation of skin of dorsums of brushes, stop is more rare. Also the hyperemia and morbidity of the centers of defeat is noted. In
3 — 4 days the condition of the patient worsens, moderate fever is possible, rashes are opened with release of serous and purulent, opalescent liquid and formation of erosion, is more rare than ulcers. The disease usually lasts 2 — 3 weeks. In the absence of treatment process can accept recurrent character. In these cases in distal departments of extremities the lymphostasis (see) with development of hypostases is possible. Treatment is carried out by antibiotics, sulfanamide drugs, at the expressed morbidity appoint analginum, pyramidon, novocaine, Promedolum, pantopon, etc. Prevention includes observance of rules of personal hygiene and timely treatment of microtraumas.
Tropical ulcers (a tropical strupovy ulcer, a tropical phagedena, a forest ulcer, a dzhun-gliyevy ulcer, the Yemen ulcer, the Aden ulcer, the Ceylon ulcer, the Madagascar ulcer) — various on genesis and a wedge, a picture of an ulcer, arising in a shin (fig. 1) and feet, hl. obr. at men of young and middle age. Activators are pyococci in a combination
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Fig. 1. Shin of the patient with a tropical ulcer: the extensive ulcer with infiltrirovanny edges and a clear boundary is visible.,
with the microorganisms causing fuzospirillez (see). Developing of ulcers is usually preceded by an injury of skin, its pollution, their development is also promoted by infectious and parasitic diseases, hypovitaminosis, defective, a hyponutrient, etc.
Klin, the picture is characterized by formation of a phlyctena (see) or a bubble with the subsequent formation in its zone of the deep ulcer with a diameter up to 10 — 12 cm surrounded with an ostrovospalitelny rim. Further the ulcer continues to grow on the periphery and deep into. A normality of surrounding skin, i.e. lack of any symptoms of a varicosity, a xerosis, dystrophy is typical for a tropical ulcer. Edges of ulcers of an infiltrirovana, are condensed, the bottom is covered with a purulent plaque. Formation of a grayish-ashy scab begins in 2 — 3 weeks after the beginning of a disease. After rejection of a scab the rough, depigmented on the periphery hem is formed. The general condition of patients is not broken; the expressed reaction regional limf, nodes usually are not observed. A kind of a tropical ulcer is the ulcer of deserts arising in the conditions of arid tropical climate and differing in less deep damage of skin.
Treatment is carried out by antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity (especially in the form of obkalyvaniye of ulcers), sulfanamide drugs, polyvitamins; locally appoint irrigations disinfecting solutions, the antiseptic and antiinflammatory ointments, creams which are especially containing A, F vitamins; rest of the affected extremity, and also good nutrition is recommended. In the started cases emergence of new ulcers, their merge,
and also fever, sepsis is possible. Prevention includes timely treatment of injuries of skin, observance of rules of personal hygiene.
A tropical phytodermatosis — the acute allergic dermatitis (see) arising at contact with macrotherms. Pollen of plants, petals of flowers, kidneys, leaves, grains, fruits, stalks, wood, bark, the roots, wood juice containing essential oils, enzymes, glycosides, alkaloids, pitches, furocoumarins, various acid and alkaline connections can be the allergen causing inflammatory reaction of skin. Toksiko-dendronovy, mango, palisander dermatitis, etc. is more often observed. A clinical picture and treatment — see Dermatitis.
A tropical pruritic dermatosis includes temporary a prurigo — the pruritic dermatosis which is found generally at young women to-ry is localized on extensor surfaces of extremities in the form of the nodular and bubble elements which are transformed in several days to small erosion with serous and bloody crusts (fig. 2); the tropical heat rash caused by disturbance of free release of sweat from actively functioning sweat glands as a result of obstruction of their mouths dirt (see the Heat rash); phlebotodermia (see the Phlebotodermia), and also to a harar — a disease pathogenetic and clinically close to a phlebotodermia. Treatment of a tropical pruritic dermatosis is carried out giposensibilrziruyushchimp by means, locally appoint the means calming an itch. Prevention comes down to protection of skin against insects, and also to observance of rules of personal hygiene.
Bibliography: Babayants R. S. Skin and venereal diseases of tropical countries, M., 1972; Infectious diseases of the person, under the editorship of V. M. Zhdanov, M., 1955; Manson’s tropical diseases, ed. by Ch. Wilcocks a. p. Manson-Bahr, L., 1974. P. S. Babayants.
Fig. 2. Shins of the patient temporary prurigo: the multiple nodular
elements covered with crusts are visible.