TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, the Republic Trinidad and T about and - about — the state in the basin of the Caribbean Sea located on two big islands Trinidad and Tobago and five
the exact coast of South America, small at a North vos. General territory of 5141 sq.km. Population of 1,2 million people (1981). The capital — Port of Spain (apprx. 300 thousand zhit. with suburbs). Administrative division — 9 counties. Ofits. language — English.
Islands Trinidad and Tobago are opened by Christopher Columbus in 1498. Up to 19 century were colony of Spain. In 1802 Mr. Trinidad, and in 1814 Tobago was passed to England and till August 31, 1962 were colony of Great Britain (from 1958 to 1968
were a part of the West Indian federation). In 1962 Trinidad and Tobago gained independence within the Commonwealth (it is shaven.), and on August 1, 1976 are proclaimed the republic.
The head of state — the president. The legislature belongs to parliament. Executive power is carried out by the government headed by the prime minister.
The climate is subequatorial, hot and wet. The average monthly tekhmperatura 25 — 27 °, rainfall drops out to 1200 mm, in the West — to 3800 mm a year.
Trinidad and Tobago — the Caribbean country developed economically, is high on the list in the Western hemisphere on the level of the national income per capita (more than 1500 US dollars). The country has rich reserves of oil and natural gas. A considerable part of production of oil products is under control of the state.
Agriculture — the unprofitable industry of economy; in the country a little more than a half necessary for page is made - x. products. The main part of food is imported from the USA.
The population of the country consists of Blacks (43%), Indians (40%), mulattos (15%), Chinese (1%) and Europeans (1%). Natural movement of the population (1979): birth rate —
25,1, the general mortality — 6,8, a natural increase — 18,3 for 1000 of the population; child mortality — 26,4 on 1000 live-born.
In 1979 in the country 14 cases of a typhoid and paratyphus, 2 cases of an amebiasis, 126 cases of infectious hepatitis, 82 cases of a pulmonary tuberculosis, 17 cases of yellow fever, 739 cases of syphilis and 3644 cases of gonorrhea were registered. In a number of districts of the country fever of a dengue, malaria, a filariasis, leptospirosis, viral encephalitis is registered.
First place among causes of death is won by diseases of cardiovascular system (165,8 on 100 thousand population), then defeats of vessels of a brain (96,6), malignant new growths (61,3), a diabetes mellitus (43,6), flu and pneumonia (41,0).
The health service of the country is headed by the Ministry of Health.
In 1979 in the country there were 25 medical institutions on 4387 beds (3,7 on 10 thousand population), from them 15 BCs on 4153 beds are under authority of the state and 10 private commercial BCs on 234 beds. From available in the country to lay down. institutions 2-tsy of the general type on 1520 beds; 9 rural or local BCs on 506 beds; 10 medical centers on 234 beds. There would be specialized — tubercular on 279 beds, psychiatric on 1404 beds, one hospital for treatment of chronic patients on 334 beds and 1 maternity home on 110 beds.
In not hospital help to the population it appears in polyclinic departments of BC and in 102 centers of health care, a part from to-rykh gives specialized help to TB patients, a leprosy and veins. diseases. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions not always correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Lechebn about-about filaktiche-sky institutions abroad).
In 1980 in the country 786 doctors (6,89 for 10 000 population), 69 stomatologists, 2837 nurses worked. There are centers for training of nurses, assistants to nurses and nurses-midwifes. Doctors are trained abroad, by hl. obr. on medical f-those West Indian un-that (Jamaica).
Bibliography: Big Soviet encyclopedia, 3rd prod., t. 26, page 217; Official documents of WHO No. 236, page 529, Geneva, 1977; World health statistics annual 1983, Geneva, 1983; World health statistics annual 1980, Vital statistics and causes of death, p. 11, 15, Geneva, 1980.
A. A. Rozov.