TRIGLITsERYDY (a synonym neutral fats) — full esters of glycerin and fatty acids — triatsilglitserina. T. are the main part of seed and animal fats (see). In a human body and animal T., postponed in fatty tissue (see), serve as reserve power material. As a part of hypodermic cellulose T. perform thermoprotective function, and also function of protection of internals and fabrics from possible bruises. T. treat the main nutrients. In a blood plasma of the person and animal T. there are only in structure of lipoproteids (see), hl. obr. chylomicrons and the lipoproteids of very low density which are carrying out their transport from places of synthesis to places of utilization.
The most often found pathology of exchange of T. the obesity (see) which is shown excess adjournment of T is. in fat depos and hypodermic cellulose.
Acid residues of T. contain, as a rule, an unbranched carbon radical with an even number of carbon atoms, most often - it is the remains stearin, palmitic and olein to - t (see. Fatty acids). T. are solid or liquid matters with ud. weighing from 0,910 to 0,996, water-insoluble and well soluble in organic solvents. Characteristic chemical reaction of T. step hydrolysis on glycerin (see) and corresponding fat to - you is. Most quickly hydrolysis of T. proceeds at saponification (see) alkalis, and along with glycerin the corresponding soaps are formed (see).
Biosynthesis of T. there is a hl. obr. in a liver and in fatty tissue. From atsil-KOA and glycerophosphate it is formed fosfatidny to - that, edges it is dephosphorylated to the diatsilglitse-rin acylated by the third molecule atsil-KOA. Almost similarly there is a synthesis of T. from free fat to - t both mono - and diatsilglitse-rin in a mucous membrane of intestines.
At animals, plants and microorganisms hydrolysis of T. it is carried out by means of enzymes — lipases (see). The most active are the lipase of pancreatic juice splitting food T., a lipase of a liver, a gormonchuvstvitel-ny lipase of fatty tissue and a lipo-proteidlipaz (see).
In blood serum T. determine by Carlson's method — Ignatovskoy: formed as a result of hydrolysis of T. glycerin is quantitatively oxidized by means of periodate of sodium to formaldehyde (see. Ant aldehyde), concentration to-rogo is measured on staining reaction with chromotropic to - that.
Maintenance of T. in a blood plasma of the adult healthy person makes up to 200 mg! 100 ml. At gi-perlipoproteinemiya the maintenance of T. in a blood plasma increases, especially at a hyper lipoprotein-mii of the I type — hyper chylomicron-mii and a giperlipoproteinemiya of the V type.
Bibliography: Vereshchagin A. G. Biochemistry of triglycerides, M., 1972; Tyu
tyu N of N and to about in B. N. Himiya of fats, M., 1974; Handbook of lipid research, ed.
by D. J. Hanahan, v. 1, N. Y. — L., 1978.
A. H. Klimov, D. V. Ioffe.