From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TREATMENT-AND-PROPHYLACTIC PROVIDING ARMED FORCES OF THE USSR — set of the preventive and medical events held in the armed forces in peace time and aiming at preservation and promotion of health of the military personnel, the prevention and decrease in incidence and trudopoter, timely recognition of diseases, delivery of health care and treatment of patients.

L. - by the item of the lake of AF of the USSR it was created as a component of the Soviet health care after the end of foreign military intervention and civil war. The theoretical basis it was made by the principles of the organization to lay down. - professional, the help to the population of the country, based on an organic combination to lay down. and preventive actions at the leading role of prevention and medical examinations (see). The general principles and methodical approaches were reconstructed in relation to specific tasks, character and conditions of activity of Red Army and the Navy.

A big role in development of the theoretical and organizational beginnings which defined formation of system L. - the item of the lake of AF of the USSR and the main directions of its further development, belongs to the prominent organizer of the Soviet military health care 3. To P. Solovyov. At the same time to construction of AF of the USSR there was an improvement of the organization and methods to lay down. - professional, providing on the basis of the timely accounting of changes in organizational structure and hardware of army and the fleet, the maximum use of achievements of medical science and practice of the Soviet health care, and also systematic improvement of material and technical resources of military-medical service and increase in level of special preparation of military-medical shots.

L. - the USSR includes the item of the lake of AF:

1) studying of features of combat training, military work and life of staff in relation to conditions of service in each type of armed forces and a type of military forces for identification of the factors which are adversely influencing health of the military personnel, and holding the relevant preventive activities;

2) implementation of medical control of the state of health of staff by performing systematic medical examinations and inspections;

3) timely rendering medical aid to the military personnel, out-patient and hospitalization of patients;

4) the systematic analysis of incidence and trudopoter staff, development and carrying out purposeful to lay down. - professional, actions.

To lay down. - professional, providing is closely connected with a complex systematically carried out in military units and by the ships a dignity. - a gigabyte. and protivoepid, actions, in particular control of observance by the military personnel of rules of personal hygiene, of working conditions and life of the military personnel (placement, supply with water, food and bath-and-laundry service) (see. Hygiene military ), immunization of staff, supervision for a dignity. - epid, a condition of the district of a disposition and carrying out in it necessary recreational actions (see. Epidemiology military ).

Prevention of incidence consists in a hardening of an organism and elimination of the factors which are adversely influencing staff of AF of the USSR. Identification of such adverse factors demands deep studying of all parties of work and life of the military personnel, hl. obr. in the course of fighting and physical. training of staff of AF of the USSR. Along with it incidence of the military personnel for identification of a causal relationship between its emergence and conditions is carefully studied, in to-rykh life and activity of staff of this part proceeds. Therefore in system L. - the item of the lake of AF of the USSR medical control of the state of health of staff is of particular importance. It includes: 1) medical assessment of the state of health of the military personnel for their most reasonable distribution on divisions and military specialties; 2) studying of influence on an organism of the military personnel of specific conditions of educational and fighting activity, including the works connected with management and service of modern military equipment, and also climate and living conditions; 3) early active detection of patients and persons with patol, reactions and predpatol. states for carrying out among them medical and recreational work; 4) development of recommendations about improvement of the organization fighting and physical. preparation, mode of work, rest and food of staff.

The medical service will organize and carries out medical control of the state of health of staff according to requirements of army regulations, manuals and the managements. Its main ways are daily medical overseeing by staff, regular corporal and medical examinations, inspections, and concerning officers, generals, admirals, sverkhsrochnosluzhashchy and ensigns — medical examination. The important place in system of medical control of the state of health of staff is taken by daily medical overseeing by the military personnel, a cut is carried out directly in divisions of military unit (ship), on occupations on fighting and physical. to preparation, at execution of alerts, guard duty, during the performance of economic and other works. It allows to reveal timely the diseased, to establish the reasons of diseases and injuries, to check efficiency of actions for their prevention and to introduce necessary amendments in these actions for the subsequent period. Special attention at the same time is paid to the replenishment which arrived to a part, the military personnel who is working in the conditions of possible influence of adverse factors, had diseases and lagging behind in different types of physical and combat training.

Corporal inspections of the military personnel of conscription service are regularly performed by the paramedic or a saninstruktor for the purpose of detection of diseases of integuments and control of observance of rules of personal hygiene. The military personnel, at to-rykh is revealed diseases, goes to a first-aid post for survey by the doctor. The paramedic (saninstruktor) reports on results of corporal survey on the chief of medical service of a part.

Medical examinations are carried out by hl. obr. in a first-aid post of a part the doctor or the paramedic. Such surveys are obligatory for again arriving or returned to a part, appointed for work in kitchen and constantly working at objects of food service, before carrying out safety inoculations, etc. At medical examinations special attention is paid on identification of initial forms somatic, inf. diseases, diseases of skin. Results of medical examinations are reflected in registration documents of a first-aid post (see. Medical examination ).

The medical inspections which are carried out by doctors aim to give a complex assessment of level physical. development, state of health and results physical. readiness of each serviceman. Medical inspections of soldiers, sailors, sergeants, the foremen undergoing conscription service, and cadets of military schools are subdivided on primary, next and control. All replenishment which came to military units during its stay in a quarantine and candidates for receipt for military schools before official tests is subject to primary medical inspection. The next medical examinations are conducted by two times a year before the summer and winter periods of training. Control medical inspection takes place the staff needing systematic medical observation or working in the conditions of possible influence of adverse factors; these inspections can be also undertaken as dynamic overseeing by staff of separate military divisions.

By results of medical inspection of the military personnel distribute on three groups. The first group (healthy) combines the military personnel who does not have diseases or essential deviations from a normality of health. The second group (almost healthy) is made by the persons having the diseases demanding out-patient treatment to-rye significantly do not affect working capacity and do not interfere with performance of official duties. (Having hron, diseases with moderate disturbances of functions of bodies and systems) carry the military personnel with limited working capacity needing periodic treatment to the third group. Reference of the serviceman to the third group can be temporary. After undertaken regarding medical and recreational measures or treatment in a hospital with the subsequent improvement of the state of health of the serviceman transfer to the second group. Concerning persons with permanent decrease in working capacity the expert decision on the validity to military service is passed (see. Examination, military-medical ). Data of medical inspections, and also medical examinations enter in the medical book of the serviceman, and results with the analysis of the reasons of incidence of staff the chief of medical service reports on the commander of a part (ship) with the offers directed to decrease in loadings at fighting and physical. to preparation, improvement of conditions of life, balanced diet and mode of rest, etc.

Among medical and recreational actions essential value has sanitation of an oral cavity (see), to-ruyu dentists (dentists) of military units and connections provide.

Important section L. - items of the lake of AF of the USSR make actions for the prevention and decrease in traumatism among the military personnel. An effective remedy of injury prevention is systematic control from commanders, technical structure and medical service behind observance of safety regulationss in the course of fighting and physical. preparation, and also during the performance of repair and economic work. Each case of an injury of the serviceman from trudopotery is considered and investigated with the assistance of medical service. Results of investigation and precautionary measures report on the commander of a part (ship).

The center to lay down. - works of medical service of military unit (ship) the first-aid post which is carrying out the following main events is professional: rendering acute medical aid at acute diseases, poisonings, injuries, etc.; out-patient and stationary (in infirmary of a first-aid post) inspection and treatment of patients; performing medical examinations, inspections and preventive inoculations to staff (see. Medical aid station ). In case of need the doctor of a part resorts to consultations of specialists of the closest military or civil to lay down. institutions.

In the presence of medical testimonies of patients direct for hospitalization in medical - a dignity. battalion (infirmary) or in military hospital, to Krom this part is attributed (see. Hospital military ). In civil to lay down. establishment of the sick military personnel is directed when the military hospital is at a great distance. The chief of medical service of military unit bears responsibility for correctness and timeliness of the direction of patients on hospitalization. When the sick serviceman needs particularly complex methods a wedge, inspections or treatments, it is sent to district military hospital, to the central military medical institutions or to clinics of VMA of S. M. Kirov.

In system to lay down. - professional, the actions directed to strengthening and preservation of health of generals (admirals), officers and ensigns the dignity ranks high. - hens. treatment and organized rest what military sanatoria and rest houses (are intended for see. Sanatorium ). Selection of the military personnel needing in a dignity. - hens. treatment or organized rest, and also members of their families are made by the sanatorium and selection commissions on the basis of given medical examination and the conclusions of doctors of military units.

The organization to lay down. - professional, providing depending on a type of armed forces (type of military forces), the period of combat training and conditions of accommodation of military unit has certain features. Differs in the greatest originality to lay down. - professional, providing troops at stay them in training centers, camps (see. military camp ) and on doctrines, and also during stay in special climatic conditions, napr, in mountain or desert and steppe districts, etc. In air and paraborne units the medical service pays special attention to preflight medical examinations, medical ensuring flights in difficult meteorol, conditions, high-rise and night flights, paraborne training of staff. A number of features in the organization and contents to lay down. - the prof. of providing is inherent in parts and connections of the Navy during various periods of their daily activity and combat training (at the parking of the ships on raid, during sea campaigns, at repair of the ship in dock, etc.).

A.S. Georgiyevsky, O. S. Lobastov.