TRANSILLUMINATION (Latin trans-through + illuminatio lighting, light) — survey of body in a transmitted light.
The first attempts to use T. for diagnosis were undertaken by I. P. Lazarevich (1868). T. a stomach at a peritoneoskopiya applied G. A. Orlov (1947), A. M. Aminev, 1948 (see t. 10, additional materials), Raddok (J. Page of Ruddock, 1957) and others. Principles T. intramural vessels of a stomach, intestines, gullet, bilious ways, a bladder, bronchial tubes and other hollow bodies formulated M. 3. Segal (1962, 1964, 1974).
For carrying out T. the studied object shall be located between a light source and an eye of the observer. The image of the illuminated object is caused by various absorption of light rays separate elements of fabric. At the same time the extent of blood supply of fabrics, sites of ischemia, accumulation of liquid, consolidations caused by tumors and inflammatory infiltration, foreign bodys, etc. well come to light.
In modern a wedge, practice the research in a transmitted light is used for diagnosis of diseases of eyes and adnexal bosoms of a nose (see Diafanoskopiya), differential diagnosis of a hydrocele (see Gidrotsele), diseases of a mammary gland (see. Mammary gland, methods of a research). During surgeries by objects T. hollow bodies (a throat, a gullet, a stomach, intestines, a bladder, a gall bladder, extrahepatic bilious channels, a vagina, uterine tubes, a trachea, bronchial tubes), and also the educations which are easily changing the form at a rasplastyvaniye, shift, a tension and, therefore, available to raying are (a mesentery, a linking of bodies, etc.).
Depending on an arrangement of a light source in relation to the studied object distinguish direct intracavitary T. (the light source is entered into a gleam of hollow body, its walls observed from the outer side become an object of a research); extracavitous T. (a light source have behind the studied body or education, the lobby in relation to the surgeon a wall or a surface of body is studied); return intracavitary T. (the hollow body is lit from the outside, the wall of body is studied from a mucous membrane by means of the body of the endoscope entered into a gleam); adjacent polostnuyu T. (the light source is located in a cavity of adjacent body).
As light sources for T. internals use probes with bulbs; the tools and surgical hooks supplied with illumination; endoscopic devices with fiber lighting (e.g., the gastroscope, holedokhoskop, laparoskop, etc.).
T. walls of a stomach apply with a research objective of a relief of a mucous membrane; detection of tumors, their forms and localization, extent of defeat, existence of intraparietal metastasises; studying of intraparietal blood vessels.
T. bilious channels use during operation at allocation them from commissures with the purpose to avoid accidental damage, and also for identification of changes of their walls and detection of educations in a gleam of the general bilious and vesical channels. At operations on bilious channels usually apply a method of extracavitous T. At T. a pechenochnoduodenalny sheaf authentically establish anatomic relationship of bilious channels, and a trance illyuminatsionny holedokho-
the skopiya gives information on existence of concrements and other educations in a gleam of channels. In the presence of concrements in a retroduodenal part of the general bilious canal, in intra hepatic canals, at massive inflammatory infiltrate in the field of a hepatoduodenal linking of T. it is inefficient.
T. a gall bladder often facilitates intraoperative diagnosis of not calculous cholecystitis, especially when the serous cover is not involved in process.
T. intestines apply to diagnosis of various educations in its gleam, definitions of extent of infiltration of an intestinal wall, viability of a gut at disturbances of blood circulation in it and sufficiency of a blood-groove in the intestinal loops used for anastamosing after bowel resection. For the purpose of identification of educations in a gleam of a gut and infiltrative changes of its wall use intracavitary T., and for a research in a transmitted light of vessels — extra organ T.
Oslozhneny at T. it is not described. Bibliography: Aminev A. M. Perito-
neoskopiya, Kuibyshev, 1948; Lazarevich of I. P. Diafanoskopiya or raying in use to a research of fabrics and bodies in a female basin, with the description of a case of rudimentary formation of a uterus and lack of a sleeve (Uterus rudimenta-rins — defectus vaginae), Kharkiv, 1868; Segal M. 3. Transillumination at operations on hollow bodies, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Vayeop H. E., N about 1 about-m a n M. B. of ampere-second h i n r r a h a s t K. Pancolonoscopy, Dis. Colon Rect., v. 6, p. 311, 1963. V. P. Strekalovsky.