(Latin transfusio transfusion, mixing; a synonym transfusion environments) — the medical drugs used for correction of morphological structure and physiological properties of blood and extracellular liquid.
In the first half of 20 century transfusion means were presented by generally stored blood and the simplest solutions of sodium chloride. Further the set of various T was developed. page, possessing a high therapeutic effectiveness.
On a production sign I.e. it is possible to divide into three groups. First group T. pages make the drugs prepared by institutions of service of blood (see Hemotransfusion). Carry whole stored blood, plasma to them (see the Blood plasma) and blood serum (including dry drugs), the eritro-tsitny, leukocyte weight, trom-botsitny weight (see), albumine (see), immunoglobulins (see), fibrinogen (see), the cryoprecipitate containing the VIII blood-coagulation factors (see Blood, drugs), fibrinolysin (see), a prothrombin complex (see the Prothrombin).
Second group T. the page includes blood substitutes, production to-rykh is adjusted on chemical - pharm. plants and meat-processing plants. Solutions of heterogeneous protein (e.g., Gelatinolum), synthetic colloid solutions belong to these drugs (Polyglucinum, reopoliglyukin, Rheoglumanum, Haemodesum, neohaemodesum, Polydesum, etc.)? solutions of amino acids, protein hydrolyzates (polyamine, amino-fuzin, Amincrovinum, Hydrolysinum).
Third group T. pages make the salt solutions made at the plants of the medical industry or directly in drugstores to lay down. institutions. These are crystalloid solutions, napr, isotonic solution of sodium chloride, Ringer's solution — Locke (see. Isotonic solutions), laktasol (see. Blood-substituting liquids), the solutions of electrolytes containing bromine, glucose and other means.
Modern T. pages apply to increase in respiratory function of blood and fight against a hypoxia; for improvement of blood circulation (introduction to a blood channel of liquid); strengthenings of rheological properties of blood and elimination of disturbances of microcirculation; fight against shock; hemodilutions (see); for desintoxication; stimulations of bodies and systems and strengthening of nek-ry processes (e.g., regenerations); parenteral food (see); increases in immune activity of an organism; fillings of cardiopulmonary bypasses at medical perfusion (see) and a hemodialysis (see); for a stop of bleeding (see).
T. pages normalize processes of a hemopoiesis (carry out acceleration or a torkhmozheniye eritro-, trom-bo-and a leykotsitopoeza, qualitative changes in this or that sprout of a hemopoiesis, and also change of a ratio between sprouts); are carriers of blood gases, regulate a hemodynamics (fillers, reokorrektor, gemodilyutant, regulators of electrolytic structure, perfused environments, inhibitors of interoretseptor, stimulators of reflexogenic zones and the centers of regulation of a hemodynamics). Nek-ry transfusion means are dezintoksikator (drugs of polyvinylpirrolidone, blockers of toxins, regulators of acid-base equilibrium) or diuretics (mannitol). K T. pages carry also pharmaceuticals for parenteral food (carbohydrates, fats, amino acids), stimulators and inhibitors of protective functions of blood, regulators of koagulologiche-sky properties of blood, stimulators and inhibitors of an enzimogenez of blood cells, multifunctional haemo proofreaders, artificial blood.
At treatment of the majority patol. processes, first of all shock (see) and blood losses (see), the T cannot manage. page of one look; it is necessary to apply in a certain sequence or at the same time various T. the pages eliminating hemodynamic disturbances, a hypoxia, the warning intoxications, corrective disturbances of water and electrolytic exchange, acid-base equilibrium, etc.
T. pages enter intravenously, inside-kostno, vnutriarterialno, vnut-riaortalno. For infusion of T. villages use special devices, plastikatny systems for hemotransfusion, plastikatny containers of single application, and also the sets of specialized appointment consisting of needles, system of tubes, droppers, filters, tanks for transfusion means (see Hemotransfusion). Bibliography: Gavrilov O. K. Scientific and organizational bases of service of blood, M., 1977; The Guide to the general and clinical transfusiology, under the editorship of
B. V. Petrovsky, M., 1979; The Application guide of blood and blood substitutes, under the editorship of A. N. Filatov, JI., 1973.; The reference book on hemotransfusion and blood substitutes, under the editorship of O. K. Gavrilov, M., 1982. O. K. Gavrilov.