TRANSCARPATHIAN GROUP OF RESORTS — the balneological, preferential drinking, and klimatobalneologichesky resorts located in southwest spurs of the Ukrainian Carpathians, in east part of the Srednedunaysky lowland — within the Transcarpathian region. In 3. to. resorts enter: Verkhovina, Mountain the Yew, the Carpathians, Polonina's Receipt, the Glade, Bruise, the Solar Transcarpathia and Shayan who are at the height from 320 to 600 m above sea-level
Carpathians Mountains, reaching places of 1500 — 2000 m above sea-level, covered with the beech and oak forests among which the small small rivers and streams falling into the river flow. To a yew, green gardens and vineyards on plains, the large number of mineral sources, favorable climatic conditions promote creation of resorts and institutions of rest. According to climatic data 3. to. it is possible to divide into three zones: low (flat), foothill and mountain.
Curative properties of water of mineral sources of Transcarpathia are known long ago; the first primitive buildings for reception of bathtubs near natural exits of mineral sources began to build in 16 century. Before establishment of the Soviet power due attention was not paid to use of resort resources of Transcarpathia; only some mineral sources were operated by business owners for the organization on their base of pouring and balneolechebnitsa. Broad development of resorts began only after reunion of the Transcarpathian Ukraine with the Ukrainian SSR. For years of the Soviet power operating were considerably expanded, arranged well and new resorts are organized, sanatoria, rest houses, balneofizioterapevtichesky and other sanatorium institutions are constructed. In the «Main directions of development of the national economy of the USSR for 1975 — 1980» accepted by the XXV congress of the CPSU further expansion and improvement of sanatorium zones in the Carpathians is provided.
Major medical factors — mineral springs of various types: carbonic hydrocarbonate sodium (Borjomi type), hydrocarbonate sodium-calcium (like a narzan), gidrokarbonatno-chloride sodium (type Yessentuki) and other mineral waters used for drinking treatment, inhalations, bathtubs, flourishes, irrigations and pouring; the ozokerite applied to thermal treatment and also favorable climate.
Climate 3. to. soft, moderately warm, average annual temperature 8 — 11 °; owing to features of a relief there are noticeable variations of the microclimatic mode of certain resorts. Summer warm (average monthly air temperature in valleys and foothill areas in July 20 °, in mountainous areas 16 °) with dominance of slightly overcast weather. The maximum temperature in the summer in separate days reaches to 35 — 37 °. The warm period in a low (flat) zone is determined to the middle of February — to the beginning of March, and in a mountain zone by the end of March — to the beginning of April. Winter moderately soft (average monthly temperature in a flat zone in January — 2 — 3 °, in foothill — 3 — 4 °, in mountains — 5 — 9 °, and in cold months in separate days reaches to — 24 °). Rainfall drops out preferential during the warm period (April — October) with a maximum in June and makes in a flat zone 600 — 700 mm, in foothill 800 — 1000 mm and in a mountain zone 1000 — 1600 mm and more in a year. In summer months thunder-storms are frequent (6 — 7 days a month). Weather in the fall unstable, sometimes with sharp cold snaps. Winds in Transcarpathia happen seldom, preferential southwest, bearing from the Atlantic Ocean moisture and heat.
Verkhovina — balneol. low-mountain forest resort; it is located at the height of 600 m above sea-level in the village of Soymy. Mineral water of a source of Soyma is used for drinking treatment, bathtubs, intestinal washings, flourishes. Formula of chemical composition of water of the well 3:
Gastroenterol. the sanatorium of the resort has a vodoozokeritolechebnitsa and necessary lechebnodiagnostichesky offices. In the neighborhood of the resort there is Lake Synevyr, through 20-meter thickness hrustalno of pure water to-rogo in a sunny weather it is possible to make out a stony bottom clearly.
Mountain Yew — balneol. low-mountain forest resort; it is located at the height of 520 m above sea-level in the village Kvass, on the right coast of river. Black Yew. The resort has policlinic with departments of physical therapy and a paraffin therapy, a balneary. For bathtubs mineral water of a source Kvass of the following structure is used (well 1):
Water of the well 2 of similar structure contains 0,008 g/l of arsenic and is applied also to bathtubs.
Carpathians — klimatobalneol. foothill forest resort; it is located at the height of 350 m on yuzh above sea-level. a slope of the mountain, in the valley of the mountain river of Latorits, inflow Yews; the resort has the park with various vegetation. At sanatorium a balneary where patients take carbonic, chloride sodium and other baths, souls, and also ozokeritolechebniyets.
The climatotherapy is carried out; on the beach at river of Latorits the aero sunbed is equipped, there are souls. The mineral water of the well 1-K of the following structure removed in the village of Pasika is applied to drinking treatment:
Polonina's receipt — balneol. foothill resort of a forest zone; it is located at the height of 280 m above sea-level on the right coast of river. Stone pines. Gastroenterol. the sanatorium of the resort has a vodoozokeritolechebnitsa and medical and diagnostic offices. Mineral water of the resort of Luzhanskaya is used for drinking treatment, intestinal washings, bathtubs and pouring. Formula of chemical composition of water of the well 4:
Glade — balneol., preferential drinking, foothill forest resort located at the height of 340 m above sea-level Gastroenterol. the sanatorium of the resort has a vodoozokeritolechebnitsa and medical and diagnostic offices. Water of a source Polyana-Kupel is used for drinking treatment, intestinal washings and bathtubs. Formula of chemical composition of water of the well 3:
For pouring water of the well, similar on structure, 1 Glade of Kvasov located on the left coast of river is used. Stone pines.
Bruise — balneol. the low-mountain resort of a forest sona located at the height of 450 m above sea-level. Abrupt descent conducts to the artificial lake at the bottom of the Sinyaksky hollow. Kardiol. the sanatorium of the resort has a vodoozokeritolechebnitsa and medical and diagnostic offices. Sulfide water of sources of the resort is used for bathtubs and inhalations. Formula of chemical composition of water of the well 1:
Solar Transcarpathia — balneol. the foothill forest resort located at the height of 340 above sea-level in the Svalyavsky hollow, in a big forest park on the bank of river. Stone pine. Gastroenterol. the sanatorium has a vodoozokeritolechebnitsa, lechebnodiagnostichesky offices and an aero sunbed. For drinking treatment, intestinal washings, bathtubs, flourishes and pouring mineral water from the well 10-P of the following structure is used:
Shayan — balneol. the low-mountain forest resort located at the height of 600 m above sea-level at a foot of the mountain of Big Shayan on the left coast of river. Yews. At gastroenterol. sanatoria of the resort there is a vodoozokeritolechebnitsa and medical and diagnostic offices. Water of mineral sources of the following chemical structure is applied to drinking treatment, bathtubs, intestinal washings and flourishes:
In the territory of the Transcarpathian region, except the listed resorts, there are many sanatoria, sanatoria dispensaries, and also rest houses, summer camps and tourist bases.
In Uzhhorod the branch Odessa research in-that balneology of M3 of USSR with clinic which is engaged in studying of resort resources of Transcarpathia and development of methods of their use for to lay down functions. - professional, is more whole. The clinic in-that for treatment of patients uses the Uzhhorod mineral water of the following chemical structure:
For balneol. (preferential drinking) resorts of Verkhovina, Kvitka Polonina, Polyana, Solar Transcarpathia — diseases of digestive organs: hron, gastritises, a peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum in a stage of remission or the calming-down aggravation in the absence of insufficiency of motor function of a stomach, tendency to bleedings, a penetration and suspicion on a possibility of a malignancy; diseases operated (concerning an ulcer) a stomach, hron, colitis and coloenterites (except stenosing and tubercular); functional diseases of a stomach and intestines; hron, diseases of a liver and bilious ways, a state after the postponed viral hepatitis, dyskinesia of bilious ways and a gall bladder (not earlier than in 2 — 3 months after the acute period); hron, pancreatitis without tendency to frequent aggravations. For balneol. resort Bruise and klimatobalneol. the resort Carpathians — diseases of cardiovascular system with disturbance of blood circulation are not higher than the I—II degree. For balneol. resorts Bruise and Mountain Yew, besides, diseases of a musculoskeletal system of not tubercular character and peripheral nervous system. In more detail indications, and also contraindications — see. Sanatorium selection, table .
Bibliography: The catalog of mineral waters of the USSR, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, page 164, M., 1969; The Resorts of the USSR, under the editorship of S. V. Ku-rashova, etc., M., 1962; Mineralnye Vody of the USSR, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, page 218, M., 1974; Torokhtin M. D. and Denisyuk V. G. Health resorts of the Carpathians, Uzhhorod, 1975.
V. V. Poltoranov, L. G. Goldfayl, M. D. Torokhtin.