From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TOXICOLOGY (Greek toxikos the employee for greasing of arrows, i.e. poisonous + logos the doctrine) — the science studying properties and the mechanism of action poisonous and potentially toxics, feature of the poisonings caused by them and methods of their prevention and treatment.

T. covers a complex of the questions connected with studying of interaction of toxicants with biol. systems at various levels of their organization (from cellular to population). Studying of features of reactions of different types of animals and plants on chemical substances is the maintenance of comparative T., and studying of the same questions in relation to farm and trade animals — contents veterinary T.

Odnim from the major sections T. the medical T is. Its main task consists in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases connected with influence of chemical substances and its remote effects. Medical T. includes: general, clinical and preventive T. As one of the directions of medical T. consider so-called medicinal T.

Main objective of the general T. — studying of the general mechanisms which are the cornerstone of toxic effect of chemical substances (metabolism, interaction with receptors, communication of toxic effect with a chemical structure of substances, etc.). In problems of the general T. enter also development of pilot models of intoxications (see Model of a disease), studying of specific and age sensitivity of animals to poisons and extrapolation of these data on the person.

Purpose of clinical T. is: studying a wedge, forms of the acute and chronic pathology caused by influence of toxicants, diagnosis of poisonings (see); approbation of new antidotes (see), methods of an artificial detoxication (see Desintoxication); development of schemes of treatment of poisonings and measures for the prevention and treatment of their remote effects.

Preventive (hygienic) T. studies toxic environmental factors. Depending on their character preventive T. subdivide into industrial T., utility and food T. K of industrial T. the agricultural T adjoins., studying influence on a human body of the chemical substances applied in agriculture — pesticides (see), mineral fertilizers (see), technical liquids, etc. Problem of medicinal T. studying of toxic properties of pharmaceuticals is.

Military and judicial T. are allocated in independent sections. Judicial T. is based on data of clinical T., pathological anatomy, judicial chemistry (see).

Development of T. it is carried out in close connection with biochemistry, physiology, morphology, pharmacology, the general pathology, immunology and other sciences of a medicobiological profile, methods to-rykh are widely used in toksikol. researches. Besides, in T. are applied actually toksikol. the methods allowing to reproduce real conditions of inhalation, skin and resorptive and peroral poisoning in an experiment. For identification of nonspecific reactions of an organism to long influence of chemical factors of small intensity in T. apply the integral tests allowing to register initial functional changes from c. N of page (method of conditioned reflexes, behavioural tests, etc.), cardiovascular, endocrine, etc.

Sensitivity toksikol. tests raises during the studying of action of chemical factors on pilot models patol. states that is used during the development of toksiko-hygienic standards (see. Standards hygienic ). V T. apply the methods allowing to reveal mutagen, oncogenous, teratogenic and other types of specific action poisons (see).

History T. it is inseparably linked with development of pharmacology (see), cover with a part T. was up to the beginning of 20 century. The first data on poisons meet in Platon, Pliny the Elder, Dioskorid, K. Galen's works. In the Middle Ages of the data on poisons extended and specified thanks to works of Paratseljs and other scientists-yatrokhimikov (see. Yatrokhimiya ). As medicobiological science of T. began to form in the first half of the 19th century. In 1818 the first guide to judicial T was published. fr. physician Orfil (M. J. Century of Orfila), in Krom were formulated tasks and the principles T. as sciences about poisons and their action on a human body.

A great influence on development of T. as experimental science rendered classical researches of K. Bernard and methods developed by it fiziol. the analysis of action on an organism of animal nek-ry neurotropic poisons. In the second half of 19 century it is especially fruitful over questions T. A. Rabuteau, L. Hermann, Guzemann worked (T. Husemann) and F. Taylor.

Experimental T. in Russia began to develop from the middle of 19 century when the first were organized experimental toksikol. laboratories: E. V. Pelikana in St. Petersburg and G. I. Blosfelda in Kazan.

A great influence on development of the experimental direction in T. rendered I. M. Sechenov's works, S. P. Botkin and especially V. V. Pashutin paying much attention to studying of a pathogeny of intoxications (see). Fundamental value for development of domestic pharmacology and T., especially general T., had N. P. Kravkov's works.

After Great October socialist revolution according to the preventive direction of medicine in the USSR big scope is received by researches in the field of industrial T. Odnovremenno works on creation of theoretical bases of T extend and go deep. S. V. Anichkov, Yu. V. Drugov, V. M. Karasik's works in this respect were of great importance: N. V. Lazareva, N. S. Pravdin. Significant contribution to development of T. brought A. A. Likhachev, H. N. Savitsky, A. I. Cherkes.

Especially snowballing of T. treats the second half of 20 century in connection with continuous increase in number of subjects toksikol. to studying of the chemical connections possessing various range fiziol. activities, and also thanks to achievements of related subjects, especially biochemistry (see) and pharmacology (see), thanking the Crimea studying of thin mechanisms of interaction of chemical substances with receptors (see), enzymes (see), plasma membranes became possible (see. Membranes biological ) and other components biol. systems.

Progress sovr. toksikol. sciences concern all its sections. So, researches in the field of the general T. allowed to determine the consistent patterns defining conditions of development of intoxications. Features of transport and metabolism of chemical substances in an organism — a toksikokine-tic are among such patterns (see Poisonings); molecular mechanisms primary fiziol. reactions (molecular T.); dependence of toxic effect of the size of a dose (quantitative T.), chemical structures and f from. - chemical properties, and also from a condition of an organism, a species of an animal, a floor, individual sensitivity, etc.

In the second half of 20 century further development was gained by clinical T. Eto concerns first of all development of means and methods of treatment of acute poisonings, including new antidotes (see), effective ways of a detoxication (see. Disintoxication therapy , Desintoxication ).

Progress sovr. in domestic T. it is considerably connected with fundamental works in the field of industrial T., exerted decisive impact on development of preventive T., before a cut there are important national objectives of public health care of the country from harmful effects of various environmental factors. Due to the progress of preventive T. in the USSR within the program of the UN for environmental control the Center of the international register of potentially toxic chemicals is created (see. Environmental control ).

To achievements of domestic T. it is necessary to carry the organization of the centers for treatment of acute poisonings, creation toksikol. services, introduction to states of regional SES toksikol. divisions (see. Sanitary and epidemiologic station), etc. From immediate tasks sovr. in domestic T. are the most important: further development of the concept about a threshold of effect of chemical substances, a research molecular and fiziol. their mechanisms biol. activities, establishment physical. - the chemical and chemical parameters necessary for forecasting of toxicity and danger of substances, improvement of the theory of mathematical modeling of intoxications, development of new antidotes, etc.

In the USSR problems T. develop: Ying t of toxicology of M3 of the USSR, All-Union research in-t of hygiene and toxicology of pesticides, polymeric and M3 plasts of the USSR, Ying t on biological tests of chemical compounds of Min-va of the medical industry of the USSR, All-Union research chemical and pharmaceutical in-t of S. Ordzhonikidze, the Kiev scientific research institute of pharmacology and toxicology; a number of in-t of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (scientific research institute of occupational health and occupational diseases, Ying t of the general and utility hygiene of A. N. Sysin, Ying t of food, Ying t of pharmacology). Toksikol. laboratories are available in all republican in-ta of occupational health and occupational diseases, and also in similar in-ta in Leningrad, Bitter and other industrial centers of the country (see Research institutes).

Abroad scientific research on T. are carried out in in-ta of pharmacology and toxicology at nek-ry high fur boots, napr, in Halle and Leipzig (GDR), the Würzburg, Heidelberg, Goettingen (Germany); department of toxicology Californian un-that (USA), in the Utrecht toxicological center (Netherlands), etc. From the institutions which are specially studying problems T., are known: Ying t of comparative toxicology and toxicology of the person in New York, the National center of toxicological researches in Jefferson (USA), department of toxicology of Laboratory council for medical researches in Kar-sholtone (Great Britain), the centers of toxicological researches in Paris and Toulouse (France), Ying ~ t of pharmacology and medical toxicology in Hanover (Germany).

Teaching T. to the USSR it is carried out at various departments (pharmacology, the general hygiene, pathological anatomy, forensic medicine, etc.). For unification of teaching T. at various departments M3 of the USSR in 1971 claimed and put into operation «Mezhka-fedralnuyu the program in clinical toxicology».

Due to the recognition of T. the independent medicobiological science in 1980 created the International union of toxicologists (JUTOX). In the USSR it is the same year organized All-Union scientific about-in toxicologists.

In the USSR materials on T. are published in magazines «Pharmacology and Toxicology», «Sanitation and Hygiene», «Occupational Health and Occupational Diseases», etc. Besides, since 1976 there is a separate issue of the abstract magazine «Biologiya» — «Toxicology». Abroad works on T. Acta pharmacol are published in «. et toxikologica» (Denmark), «Archiv fur Toxikologie» (Germany), «Clinical Toxikology» {USA), «Toxicon» (Great Britain), «J. Europ. toxicol.» (France), «Toxicolog. europ. res.» (France), «Arch. hig. rada i toksikol.» (SFRYu), «Arch, de farm, y toxikol.» (Spain), «J. environm. path, toxicol.» (USA), «Neurotoxicology» (USA), etc.

Industrial (professional) toxicology — the section T., studying the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of intoxications industrial poisons (see. Poisons industrial ).

Beginning to development of industrial T. it was necessary in the second half of 19 century K. Lehmann's works devoted to studying of effect of industrial poisons on an organism an ex-feather of mental animals.

In the USSR researches on industrial T. gained development after Great October socialist revolution. Founders of industrial T. in the USSR N. V. Lazarev and N. S. Prav-din who created respectively in Leningrad and Moscow schools of sciences of toxicologists are. Later there was the Kiev school of industrial toxicology.

In development of domestic industrial T. it is possible to allocate three periods. In the period of 20 — the 30th 20 century there was an accumulation and synthesis of data with the purpose of justification of maximum allowable concentrations (see) — Maximum allowable concentration. Besides, during this period important theoretical developments in the field of industrial T. Byli are made the results of pilot studies of toxicity of new chemical connections necessary for justification of maximum allowable concentration are also generalized new methods of researches are approved, the principles of a toksikometriya are developed. Synthesis of experience gigabyte. the concept «threshold of toxic action» allowed N. S. Pravdin to formulate rationing of industrial poisons (on sovr. terminology «threshold of acute action») that had in due time crucial importance for establishment of maximum allowable concentration. In N. V. Lazarev's book of «Fundamentals of industrial toxicology» published in 1938 for the first time in our country theoretical and experimental bases a gigabyte were formulated. rationing and in particular calculation and express methods of establishment of maximum allowable concentration.

In the period of 40 — the 50th there was an accumulation of experimental materials on a research of toxic effect of industrial poisons. The 60th and next years theoretical generalizations of this experimental material were carried out and data of the observations on the state of health working with industrial poisons depending on working conditions were analyzed development of the theory a gigabyte was carried out. rationing of chemical substances in air of a working zone (see. Microclimate ).

The Moscow school of toxicologists made the significant contribution to studying of the remote effects of effect of industrial poisons, including their oncogenous and mutagen activity, effect of substances on posterity. The Leningrad school of toxicologists offered many original methods of a research of harmful effect of poisons, methods of calculation of maximum allowable concentration on the basis of correlation dependence between physical and chemical properties of substances and them biol. action, created the concept about a condition of the nonspecific increased resilience to poisons. Under the leadership of N. V. Lazarev the fundamental reference book «Harmful Substances in the Industry» which sustained from 1933 for 1976 seven editions in Russian and translated to a number of foreign languages is published. The Kiev school of toxicologists executed researches of toxicity of various groups of pesticides and polymer substances, processes of cumulation and trans-species sensitivity, a pathogeny hron are studied. intoxications, skin resorption of poisons.

Main objectives of industrial T. were formulated by N. S. Pravdin. Treat their number: gigabyte. examination of toxicants (see Examination), a gigabyte. standardization of raw materials and products (see Standardization), rationing of content of harmful substances in objects of the production environment and in biosreda. For the solution of the specified tasks industrial T. uses set of methods of quantitative assessment of toxicity and degree of danger of poisons. These methods received designation of a toksikometriya.

One of the major tasks sovr. in industrial T. still the gigabyte is. rationing of levels of industrial poisons in air of a working zone (maximum allowable concentration) and on skin (so-called marginal levels of pollution). Problem of industrial T. also the gigabyte is. standardization of industrial raw materials and products, edges comes down to restriction in them on medical indications of toxic impurity. Current and to l. examination represents the most mass look toksikol. assessment of industrial poisons including definition of lethal doses and concentration at the ways of introduction adequate to ways of intake of poisons under production conditions (in a stomach, through respiratory tracts, during the drawing on skin and mucous membranes, etc.), definition of cumulative activity with the subsequent raschetokhm of approximate safe level of influence — HAVING PUT (see P redeljno on admissible concentration). In some cases toksikol. examination is supplemented with establishment of threshold concentration of substances.

At the 1st All-Union conference on the general questions of industrial toxicology (1967) urgent problems sovr were formulated. in industrial T. Such problems are: establishment of structural bases biol. activities of substances; detection of patterns and the reasons of change of sensitivity to poisons in ontogenesis; definition of patterns of absorption of poisons organism (their distribution, transformations and removal); establishment of origins of the next and remote effects of toxic influence of substances (general incidence, carcinogenesis, damage of reproductive function); development of criteria of harm; studying of mechanisms of effect of poisons, experimental justification of pathogenetic therapy of intoxications, W. h industrial poisons.

Military toxicology — the section T. and military medicine, studying patterns of effect of toxic agents (cm) — O B on an organism and developing means of medical protection against chemical weapon (see Protection against means of war of defeat, Antigas protection).

Development of domestic military T. began soon after the end of World War I when A. A. Likhachev analyzed results of treatment of the struck OV and need of purposeful studying of poisonings of O B as essentially new type of pathology is proved. Afterwards on the basis of synthesis of experience of treatment of the struck OV, results of theoretical and pilot studies by G. V. Hlo-pin (1918), S. S. Vail (1932), N. A. Soshestvensky (1933), A. I. Cherkes (1936, 1964), H. N. Savitsky (1939), S. N. Golikov (1972) created the original guides to military T. Important patterns of action of O B and other highly toxic connections found reflection in researches and N. V. Lazarev, S. D. Zaugolnikov, R. S. Rybolovlev, N. V. Savateev, L. A. Tiunov's works. Considerable progress of military T. in development of means of medical protection against chemical weapon are connected with activity Yu. V. Drugova, to-ry proved the principles of receiving sovr. antidotes (see Antidotes of OV) also developed rational system of assistance to the struck OV at different stages of medical evacuation.

Main objectives sovr. in military T. are: establishment of degree of toxicity and features of action of O B and other highly toxic connections at various ways of receipt them in an organism; studying of the mechanism of action OV and a wedge, displays of intoxications caused by them, search of effective remedies of prevention and treatment of poisonings of OV; development of the most reasonable routes of administration of these means at stages of medical evacuation; justification of organizational actions of medical service for protection of staff of troops and the population, wounded and patients in the conditions of the possible use of chemical weapon or poisons used in the diversionary purposes. Military T. develops also methods of prevention and treatment of accidental poisonings in troops (mushrooms, poisonous fishes, noxious plants).

For the solution of the specified tasks in military T. the same methods of a research are widely applied, to-rye are used in modern T. In connection with the specific nature of action of each O B treatment of struck shall be performed by doctors of all main specialties (therapists, neuropathologists, dermatologists, surgeons, etc.) therefore process of training of doctors — specialists of a different profile — joins studying of OV and means of assistance to struck.

Bibliography: Badyugin I. S. Toxicology of synthetic poisons, Kazan, 1974; S. N Brooms. Urgent problems of modern toxicology, Pharm. and toksikol., t. 49, No. 6, page 645, 1981; About l at e in A. A., etc. Quantitative toxicology, D., 1973; Kagan Yu. S. General toxicology of pesticides, Kiev, 1981, bibliogr.; Methods of definition of toxicity and danger of chemicals. (Toksikometriya), under the editorship of I. V. Sanotsky, M., 1970; Fundamentals of the general industrial toxicology, under the editorship of N. A. Tolokontsev and V. A. Filov, L., 1976; The Guide to toxicology of toxic agents, under the editorship of S. N. Golikov, M., 1972; The Guide to toxicology of toxic agents, under the editorship of. A. I. Cherkesa, Kiev, 1964; With and in and c to and y H. H. Private pathology and therapy of intoxications chemical warfare agents, M. — L., 1938; Sanitary and chemical protection, under the editorship of Yu. V. Drugov, M., 1959; Stroykov Yu. H. Medical care struck with toxic agents, M., 1970; Aldridge W. N. and. Schlatter C. Training and education in toxicology, Arch. Toxikol., Bd 45, S. 249, 1980; Ariens E. J., Simonis A. M. a. Offer meier J. Introduction to general toxicology, N. Y. a. o., 1976; Hauschild F. Pharmakologie und Grundlagen der Toxikologie, Lpz., 1973; Riedl O. Vondracek V. Klinicks toxikologie, Praha, 1971; Toxicology, ed. by L. J. Casarett a. J. Doull, N. Y., 1975; Zbin den G. Progress in toxicology, v. 1—2, N. Y. — B., 1973 — 1976.

C.H. Golikov; Yu. M. Polumiyekov (soldier.), K. K. Sidorov (gigabyte.).