TOURISM — the type of active recreation connected with travel, means of social development of the personality.
In our country of T. is considered as important means of improvement and communistic education of the population. In resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions «About measures for further development of tourism and excursions in the country» (1969), «About further development and improvement of tourist and excursion matter in the country» (1980), resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About further rise in mass character of physical culture and sport» (1981) and «About additional measures for improvement of public health care» (1982), etc. specific objectives of increase in a role of T are set. in strengthening of health of the Soviet people and effective use of tourist centers for prevention of incidence.
Tourism in the USSR has mass character. On planned routes more than 30 million tourists are serviced a year. In campaigns amateur T. the St. 20 million people a year participates. Main form of involvement of the population to T. the tourism of the day off organized by tourist sections of collectives of physical culture of DSO and tourist clubs is. The increasing development is gained children's by T., organized by the schools, Palaces (Houses) of pioneers, summer camps, the stations of young tourists run Central and republican children's excursion and tourist stations. Great attention children's T. give the pioneer and Komsomol organizations, education authorities. Campaigns in places of fighting glory have huge educational value.
In recent years much attention is paid family to T., for what in 1981 it was allocated apprx. 270 tourist institutions which serviced in a year St. 1,2 million persons.
Constantly international relations of our country in the area T extend., to-rymi the All-Union joint-stock company «Inturist», Bureau of the international youth travel «Satellite» and other organizations is engaged. The number of the foreign tourists who visited the USSR increased from 2 million in 1970 up to 5 million in 1983. In foreign travel in 1983 the St. 4 million Soviet citizens left (twice more, than in 1975). The international tourism plays the increasing role in development of friendship of the people and strengthening of the world.
Tourist travel are distinguished: on the purposes — recreational, cognitive, sports (abroad — business, religious); on a way of movement — active (pedestrian, ski, horse, water, bicycle, etc.) and passive (bus, railway, motor vessel, aviation, etc.); on extent — near and far; on duration — one - two-day and multi-day; on the nature of the organization — planned (along in advance developed and prepared routes with representation of a complex of services) and amateur (independent development of a route by tourists and self-service); on number of participants — group (to 10 people), mass (the St. 10 people); on the list of participants — adults, children, families, etc.; on territorial signs — within the country, foreign.
Recreational effect of T. is defined by a complex of factors: choice of a route, mode of a travel, weather climatic conditions, season of year, land relief, character and volume of a certain exercise stress, state of health and degree of physical fitness of the tourist.
The greatest value in recreational effect of tourist rest has the level of a metabolic cost of an organism on an exercise stress (see the Metabolism and energy). The recreational effect is reached only if during the tourist travel the organism spends St. 750 kcal (~ 3000 kJ) in day; the mode of tourist rest on routes of transport travel usually does not provide such metabolic cost. For faces of various medical groups (see. Medical control) the highest recreational and preventive effect is provided at a metabolic cost on exercise stresses in the following limits: for preparatory medical group — 1200 — 1500 kcal (~ 5000 — 6200 kJ), the basic medical group — 1400 — 1800 kcal (~ 5800 — 7500 kJ), special medical group — 750 — 850 kcal (— 3000 — 3500 kJ) in day.
Exercise stresses in campaigns shall not exceed functionality of an organism, but at the same time they shall be rather intensive to stir up activity fiziol. systems. Regulation of loadings is carried out at the expense of duration of walking, its speed, frequency and duration of stops, weight of a backpack and equipment, the steepness of rises and descents.
Speed and duration of travel shall correspond to physical fitness of participants. The structure of tourist group shall be whenever possible homogeneous on age, the state of health and degree of readiness.
Occupation of T. with active movement it is contraindicated to persons with the heart or coronary failure, dysfunction of a vestibular mechanism, epilepsy
expressed by effects of injuries, thrombophlebitis, a tendovaginitis, etc. In a number of campaigns also the persons having some chronic
diseases can participate (with the permission of the doctor) (out of the period of an aggravation).
Backpackings with the sports purpose have 5 categories of complexity, to-rye are defined by difficulty of the route of a route and are established by comparison of a real route with classified (reference). For participation in these campaigns the tourist needs to undergo medical inspection in a vrachebnofizkulturny clinic or in policlinic (see. Medical control). Faces of the basic medical group are allowed to campaigns, but
also the faces of preparatory group having an experience of campaigns of the day off and good technical training can participate in campaigns of the I—II category of complexity.
In a dignity. - hens. to practice from recreational and to lay down. the purpose use one-day backpackings on small distances (to 15 km, with rises to 30 °), in nek-ry cases — with the special training mode.
Backpackings shall be previously planned on the mode of the movement and rest, time of meal, the place of lodgings for the night. It is necessary to allow not less than 25% of day time for rest, after
3 — 4 days of the movement day of rest shall be appointed.
In a campaign it is necessary to observe
3 — 4-times reyashm food, to have a stock of high-calorific digestible products, canned food, vitamins. The diet of the tourist shall include vegetables and fruit surely. Total number of calories in a day diet is defined by a type of T., complexity of a route. At the pedestrian mountain and ski campaigns having category of complexity, the diet (weighing tourist of 70 kg) shall contain 4500 — 5000 kcal (~ 19 000 — 21 000 kJ). It is desirable to have means for disinfecting of water (see), napr, Pantocidum. Extra care at consumption of wild plants, mushrooms, berries (see Mushrooms, I press ye plants) is necessary.
An important condition of success and safety of backpackings is selection of clothes (see), footwear (see) and other equipment. Special value in a campaign has the correct dosing of solar radiation allowing to avoid overheating of an organism (see).
Medical control in a campaign is exercised generally by mutually-and self-checking. Participants of a campaign shall have the first-aid kit (see First-aid kits) completed with means of first-aid treatment. On mountain and ski trips it is necessary to use smoky points (see) for protection of eyes against a bright sunlight, and also the means protecting from sunblisters.
Organization and planning of T. in our country the Central office on tourism and excursions (TsSTE) at the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions is engaged, to-ry directs activities of republican, regional (regional) and city councils for tourism and excursions. Under the authority of TsSTE is available St. 960 tourist institutions (the tourist centers, hotels, campings, camps, motels) capable at the same time to accept more than 370 thousand persons. At councils for tourism and excursions federations of tourism are created. More than 760 travel agencies and excursions are under their authority. Scientific development of problems internal T. carry out All-Union research laboratory on tourism and excursions of TsSTE and Ying t of geography of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, problems foreign T. — Problem research laboratory of Glavinturist.
Funds for development of T. (construction and equipment of tourist bases, acquisition of transport, etc.) arrive both from the state budget, and from the budget of labor unions, means of the state social insurance and funds of the enterprises on welfare actions. 550 million rubles capital investments are planned for construction of tourist objects in the 11th five-years period, development to-rykh will allow to put into operation apprx. 80 thousand places.
Tours can partially be paid from means of the state social insurance and funds of the enterprises. Received from T. profits are spent for improvement and expansion of tourist economy.
See also Mountaineering, Rest, Food, athletes; Self-checking of the athlete, Physical culture and sport, Walking. Bibliography: And at to about in And. X. Tourism
at a new stage, Social aspects of development of tourism in the USSR, M., 1983; Food on a tourist travel, Methodical recommendations, sost. V. F. Szymanowski, M., 1975; Simakov V. I. Backpackings of the day off, M., 1984.
V. N. Sergeyev.