(Greek topos the place + grapho to write, represent; anatomy) — the section of anatomy studying a relative positioning of fabrics, bodies and parts of a body.
T. and. this or that body includes layer-by-layer topography of area; a golotoiiya of body (situation it in a body); syntopy of body (its relation to surrounding bodies and fabrics); skeletotopsho body (its relation to parts of a skeleton), topography of vessels and nerves, etc. T. and. has important applied value, especially in surgical practice. V T. and. the classical and modern methods of a research used are applied and during the studying of systematic anatomy: preparation, an injection of hollow bodies and vessels the condensed solutions or colorants, a corrosion method (see Drugs anatomic), a method of total cuts of the frozen corpses and «an ice sculpture» across Pirogov (see Pirogov methods), a X-ray anatomic method (see the Radioanatomy), a reconstruction method. Broad development was gained by methods of the light, electronic and scanning microscopy (see M ikroskopichesky methods of a research, the Submicroscopy), endoscopies (see), ultrasonic echolocation (see. Ultrasonic diagnosis), a computer tomography (see the Tomography computer), etc.
V T. and. M. I. Shane, E. O. Mukhin, P. A. Zagorski, I. V. Buyaljsky's scientific heritage is used. An outstanding role in development of T. and. belongs to N. I. Pirogov, the founder of the anatomic direction in surgery. Successors and followers of scientific ideas of II. I. Pirogova were To). K. Szymanowski, Page II. To about scrap pin, P. I. Dyakonov, A. A. Bobrov, N. I. Napalkov, F. A. Rein,
V. I. Razumovsky. S. N. Deli tsyp,
E. G. Salishchev, II. K. Lysenkov.
A new stage in development of T. and. as sciences came in the USSR after Great October socialist revolution. At departments of operational surgery and topographical anatomy there began the activity many outstanding Soviet surgeons: P. A. Herzen, S. I. Spasokukotsky, H. N. Burdenko, P. A. Kupriyanov, etc. A significant role in development of T. and. belongs to V. N. Shevktspepko and his pupils. developed the principles of variability of bodies and systems of a body of the person depending on type of a constitution. Data but anatomic variability of peripheral nervous and venous systems are generalized in «The atlas of peripheral nervous and venous systems» of A. N. Mak-simenkov and A.S. Vishnevsky under V. N. Shevkunenko's edition.
T. and. makes a big contribution both to training of specialists, and to development of the recent scientific trends.
A. A. Travin's works, V. V. Kovan of wasps and on problematic issues of hprurgichesky anatomy of extremities, fascial kletchatochnykh spaces and large vessels are widely known. B. V. Ognev and his pupils studied a structure of the smallest vessels of various parts of the nervous system, problems of lymphogenous innidiation. Yu. E. Vyrenkov, studying limf, system on macro - mnkro-and submikroskopicheeky levels, proved new operational receptions. S. S. Mikhaylov's works are devoted to questions of individual variability of peripheral nerves, heart and venous system of a brain. K. I. Kulchitsky's researches in the field of studying of an innervation of heart are known.
These T. and. are considered by searches of optimum operational approaches, and also during the development of new conservative methods of treatment. So, the big contribution to development of plastic surgeries on a trachea and bronchial tubes was brought by F. F. Amirov's works.
Scientific researches but to various directions T. and. conduct departments of operational surgery and topographical anatomy of medical in-t and Monday-tov of improvement of doctors, departments and laboratories but experimental and applied anatomy, a number of research in-comrades. The important place is taken by T. and. in theoretical and practical training of doctors. As a rule, in medical schools of T. and. it is taught together with operational surgery at the department combining these two subjects. In system of the higher medical education methods and practice of training of students not only on corpses, on and on experimental animals extended. In Leningrad, Moscow, Kharkiv and other cities at departments of operational surgery and topographical anatomy the educational museums are created. The guides and manuals to operational surgery and topographical anatomy published in the USSR cover many parties of this science, including T. and. adult, T. and. children's age. More detailed studying of T. and. the wedge is carried out at departments of operational surgery and topographical anatomy of in-t of improvement of doctors, on to-rykh doctors various. specialties deepen the knowledge of T. and., what allows them to seize new types of surgeries and diagnostic receptions on the chosen specialty.
Scientific research on problems T. and. are published as in magazines. devoted to questions of morphology, and in the periodicals corresponding a wedge specialties. T specialists. and. and operational surgery are members All-Union and republican scientific about-in surgeons, and also scientific about-in anatomists, histologists and embryologists; they take part in work of these congresses about - century
See also Anatomy, Operational surgery.
Bibliography: A. A beavers. The management to surgical anatomy, p.1, M., 1892; B r at with to both N Ya. M. Klinicheskaya and topographical anatomy, M. — JL, 1933; Valker F. I. Topografoanatomicheskiye of feature of children's age, M. — L., 1938; it, Development of bodies in the person after the birth, M., 1951; Delits yn S. N. Operation on a corpse, SPb., 1911; P. I. Deacons and d river. Lectures of topographical anatomy and operational surgery, t. 1 — 2, M., 1908; Isakov Yu. F., etc. Operational surgery with topographical anatomy of children's age, M., 1977; To about in and -
V. E., Anikin T. I. is new. and Sychenikov I. A. Course of lectures on operational surgery and topographical anatomy, M., 1972; The Short course of operational surgery with topographical anatomy, under the editorship of V. N. Shevkunenko and
A. N. Maksimenkov, L., 1951; L at about the Central Committee and y D. N. Fundamentals of topographical anatomy, M., 1953, bibliogr.; L y with e the Tax Code about in N. K. Topographical anatomy, Kherson, 1925; Ognev B. V. and F r hey h and V. of X. Topographical and clinical anatomy, M., 1960; Peaked G. E., L at D. N. botskiya and B about m and sh Yu. M. Kurs of operational surgery and topographical anatomy, M., 1964; Pies N. I. Anatomic images of an exterior and position of the bodies consisting in 3 main cavities of a human body, SPb., 1850; it, Surgical anatomy of arterial trunks and fastion, the lane with it., century 1, SPb., 1881; Surgical anatomy of a breast, under the editorship of A. N. Maksimenkov, L., 1955; Surgical anatomy of a stomach, under the editorship of A. N. Maksimenkov, L., 1972; Shevkunenko V. N. and Tesel e in and the p A. M. Standard anthropotomy, L. — M, 1935; Corning N. To. Lehibuch der topographischen Anatomie, Miinchen, 1944; Henke W. Topogra-phische Anatomie des Menschen in Abbil-dung und Bescbreibung, Atlas, B., 1878 — 1879; Moore K. L. Clinically oriented anatomy, Baltimore — L., 1980; Pern-k o p f 'E. Topographische Anatomie des Menschen, Bd 1 — 2, V. — Wien, 1943;
S with 1) u 1 t z e O. M. Atlas und Grundriss der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie, Miinchen, 1903; Testut J. L. et J and with o b O. Traite d’anatomie topographique avec applications medico-chirurgicales, t. 1—2, P., 1905 — 1906;
Ton dury G. Angewandte und topographische Anatomie, Stuttgart, 1959, Bib-liogr. BB. E. Vyrenkov.