From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TOOTH DISEASES — diseases of teeth and peridental fabrics.

3. are various on etiologies and a wedge, to manifestations. The general for them are localization patol, process, special methods of inspection, diagnosis and therapy. Studying 3. and methods of their prevention and treatment is one of sections stomatology (see).

Have the greatest value caries of teeth (see) and its complications: an inflammation of a pulp of tooth (see. Pulpitis ) and a root cover (see. Periodontitis ), and also periodontosis (see) — hron, dystrophic process in fabrics, adjacent to tooth. Nek-roye 3 matter. not carious origin, such as hypoplasia of enamel, acute and hron, injuries, acid (professional) necrosis of enamel; the fluorosis of teeth — one of signs hron, intoxications of an organism by fluorine is extended in some districts (see. Teeth , Fluorosis ).

Caries — one of the most widespread 3. Studying of incidence of caries presents great difficulties. It is not possible to judge it on negotiability of the population behind medical aid since not all people at a disease of caries of teeth address in to lay down. institutions. Data on spread of caries are based on results only of selective surveys of separate groups of the population (pupils, recruits, persons of some professions etc.). Judging by the published materials, incidence of caries is very various in certain geographical and ethnographic districts.

Data on prevalence of periodontosis are more homogeneous. On the basis of results of numerous inspections it is possible to consider established that not less than at 50% of people is more senior than 40 — 45 years this or that degree of periodontosis is found. The beginning destruction of solid tissues of tooth at caries does not cause any general disturbances. In process of distribution of process when the pulpitis develops, owing to painful pain of the patient loses a dream, working capacity it decreases. Further inflammatory process passes to a root cover and at decrease in protective forces of an organism the inflammation of a periosteum of a jaw (periostitis) and even osteomyelitis of a jaw can develop. Dontogenous abscesses and phlegmons of maxillofacial area at a heavy current can be life-threatening the patient. At hron, a form dontogenous inflammatory process proceeds less hard, however and it can lead to extensive destruction of a bone, napr, at big to an odontocele (see).

Inflammatory processes at hron, periodontitis and periodontosis represent the hidden centers of the infection which is a source of constant intoxication of an organism; sometimes such peridental infectious centers are the reason of a hroniosepsis (so-called oral sepsis) or a sensitization of an organism.

Destruction of teeth carious process, emergence of mobility loss of teeth at periodontosis is led to considerable decrease in chewing function that harmfully is reflected in a condition of all digestive tract. Besides, owing to 3. there is a morbidity at food, forced restriction of a diet, and also cosmetic defects and disturbances of the speech that forces to resort, to a denture (see. Dentures ).

Treatment and prevention of tooth diseases

carry out Treatment specially trained doctors — - stomatologists and dentists — in specialized stomatol. policlinics, departments and offices; it is connected using the special equipment, tools and materials.

Prevention consists in timely treatment of caries of teeth at children since caries which is the reason of many dontogenous diseases develops generally at children's age, and the prevention of complications. The balanced diet of mother and child provides necessary quantities, the organic and mineral substances in an organism going, in particular, and for formation of tissues of tooth; the special attention in prevention of caries and anomalies of development of teeth is given to intake of vitamins, salts of phosphorus and calcium.

In the USSR in the mid-forties by I. G. Lukomsky offered the method of mass prevention of caries which did not find further broad application (see. Caries of tooth ). Lack of clear ideas of an etiology and a cariogenesis of teeth continues to limit possibilities of development of effective methods of prevention of this mass disease.

Great value in the prevention, 3. has the correct and regular care of teeth - observance a gigabyte. requirements and timely treatment of uncomplicated caries, a cut is the most effective form of prevention of effects 3. Efficiency of treatment of periodontosis also depends on that how early it is possible to suspend development patol, process. Planned sanitation of teeth and an oral cavity allows to solve this problem, a cut children at receipt in school are subject and school students, pregnant women, youths of premilitary age, the military personnel, workers of the industrial enterprises, especially where - working conditions promote development 3. (see. Sanitation of an oral cavity ).

Bibliography: Bohr E. V. and L eus. P. A. Vzaimosvyaz of factors of an oral cavity and tooth fabrics in aspect of their influence on stability or a susceptibility to caries, Vestn, the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.№ I, - page 1; 1977 * bibliogr.; Боровский^. Century, Groshikov M. I. and Patrick-e in V. K. Terapevticheskaya stomats (a logiya, M., 1073;. To and days to about in and G. I. Effektivnost) uses of toothpastes in prevention and treatment of chronic ulites at school students, Stomatology. No. 1, page 74, 1976, bibliogr.; Lukyanenko V. I. Acute dental management, M., 1976, bibliogr.; A. I. fishermen "i*i * and z and I am G. V. Epi-demiolbgiya's N dental - Diseases y ways of their prevention, M., 1973, библиогр^. In i of k e 1 a n d J. M, J about of kl end L. and. F e-h of F. R. The influence of fluoride rinses on ttfg-fluori de content of dental r1aade in children, Caries ResT v. 5, p. 169, 1971; In 1 n e at J. R-a. H i of 1 1 G / N. Fluorine and dental caries, J. Amer. dent. Ass., v. 74, p. 225, 1967, bibliogr.; Grundlagen der klinischen iStomatologie, hrsg. v. G. Staegemann, Lpz., 1974; Jenkins G. N. The physiology of the mouth, Oxford, 1970; K ii n z e 1 W. Zur Kariesprophylaxe in der kinderstomatologischen SprechstuncLe, Dtsch. Stomat., S. 146, 1970.

See also bibliogr, to St. Ulitis , Teeth , Caries of tooth , Periodontosis .

E. V. Borovsky.