TONGUE-TIE (synonym dyslalia) — the alalia consisting in the wrong pronouncing separate phonemes (sounds of the speech). Disturbance of a pronunciation can be expressed as total absence or distortion of a sound (e.g., the admission of a sound of p or its pronouncing having a burr) or as replacement of one sound with another (e.g., replacement of a sound of l with a sound in).
For designation of specific defects of an articulation use usually Greek names of those sounds of the speech which pronunciation is broken: the distorted pronouncing a sound r received the name of a rotatsizm, disturbance of pronouncing a sound of l — a lambdacism etc. When the defective sound is replaced with other, quite certain sound, the corresponding disturbance is designated by means of addition to its name by particles of steam (a pararotatsizm, a paralambdacism etc.).
The most widespread look To. disturbance of a pronunciation of the whistling and hissing sounds (with, z, c, sh, h, y), the received name of a sigmatism is; then the rotatsizm and a lambdacism follows. Much less often other defects of a pronunciation (replacement of sonants with deafs, defects of mitigation of concordants, etc.) meet.
Rotatsizm is most often observed in the form of pronouncing a sound having a burr river. The lambdacism and a paralambdacism are shown in the form of total absence of a sound of l (instead of a lamp — an ampa), and also replacements with its various sounds: in semi-soft l like the German l (lyamp), to vowels at (uamp), to concordants in (vamp), a sound y (yampa) etc. Carry to tongue-tie also open and closed twang (see).
At most of children To. is essentially the manifestation of an arrest of development of the speech connected with the wrong education, regarding cases results from defects of a structure of peripheral organs of articulation. Peculiar forms of disturbance of structure of the speech are observed at relative deafness (see). Dysarthrias at diseases of c. N of page combine in independent nosological group — dysarthtia (see).
For elimination To., caused by anatomic disturbances in bodies of an articulation, usually medical actions, and also special logopedic work are required (see. Logopedics ). Palate defects, lips, language, jaws, teeth eliminate in the operational way or by methods of orthodontics (see. Orthodontic methods of treatment ) and prosthetics then logopedic work is carried out.
the Big role in the prevention To. plays the correct education of the speech at children of early age when it develops most intensively and passes so-called physiological K. Neobkhodimo's stage actively to interfere with process of formation of the speech at the child, to teach it correctly to say sounds of the speech.
Bibliography: Szeemann M. Development of the speech at children's age, the lane from Czeches., M., 1962; The Highest cortical functions of the person and their disturbance give to drink to Luriya A. R. local damages of a brain, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Bases of the theory and practice of logopedics, under the editorship of R. E. Levina, page 271, M., 1968; P r and in d and N and O. V. Logopediya, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Alalias at children and teenagers, under the editorship of S. S. Lyapidevsky, page 100, M., 1969; With and to about r-with to and y I. A. The collection of scientific and literary articles concerning public psychology, education and psychological hygiene, book 2, page 135, Kiev — Kharkiv, 1899; K.-R.'s Becker u. S about v a k M. Lehrbuch der Logopadie, V., 1975; Johnson W. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, N. Y. — Evanston, 1963; Van Riper Ch. Speech correction, N. Y., 1963.
L. W. Neumann.