TOLSKY Nikolay Alekseevich (1832 — 1891) is a domestic pediatrician, the founder of the Moscow school of pediatricians.
Upon termination of in 1853 medical f-that Moscow un-that it was left the assistant in clinic of obstetrics, female and children's diseases. In 1858 protected dokt. the thesis on «About Artificial Premature Births».
From 1859 to 1861 trained in Germany, Belgium, France, England where studied theoretical bases and practice of teaching obstetrics and gynecology, and also children's diseases. Abroad, except lectures on medicine, attended also lectures on philosophy. Since 1861 the graduated in a military academy of department of obstetrics, female and children's diseases Moscow un-that. N. A. Tolsky for the first time in practice of teaching medicine in Russia made the program of children's diseases and began to read series of lectures on this subject. N. A. Tolsky included questions of embryology, malformations of a fruit, diseases of newborns in the lectures. It combined lecturing with occupations in out-patient clinic. In 1863 N. A. Tolsky became the associate professor of a course of children's diseases that opened for him a way for independent activity. In 1866 N. A. Tolsky managed to open the Moscow's first children's clinic (children's department on 11 beds). In 1890 — 1891 with its active participation were built the special building of children's clinic and inf. barracks at department of children's diseases Moscow un-that.
Since 1873 N. A. Tolsky is professor of department of obstetrics, female and children's diseases. For a number of years it combated for creation of independent department of children's diseases. In 1888 such department was organized and headed by it. Later N. A. Tolsky's death in 1891 his pupil N. F. Filatov directed department.
Numerous scientific messages of N. A. Tolsky are published in works of Fiziko-meditsinsky society (see). Within 20 years N. A. Tolsky was the secretary, and then the chairman of it about-va and the editor of the Moscow Medical Bulletin magazine. In the lectures and scientific publications N. A. Tolsky aimed to lift consciousness of the Russian doctor, to induce it to more intensive scientific and public work, to cultivate to it wide public interests, to increase medical knowledge.
He one of the first began to develop problems of a sekhmiotika of children's diseases; the first understood a wedge, value of studying of reflexes of a brain at children. N. A. Tolsky emphasized dependence of a current and development of children's diseases on the environment and living conditions, drew the attention of doctors and the public to need of development of school hygiene.
Works: De partu arte maturando, Mosquae, 1858; Children's department of faculty clinics, University, izv., No. 9, page 709, 1866; About value of hygiene in public life and in particular in its use to our educational institutions, Works of the 2nd congress of the Russian scientists in Moscow, p.1, page 127, M., 1871; About influence of school on health of her pupils, M., 1891.
Bibliography: Betyutskaya A. V.,
N. A. Tolsky, M., 1953; Glago
lion D. Professor Nikolay Alekseevich Tolsky, Medical obozr., t. 35, No. 3, page 329, 1891; Molchanov V. I. Sketches from history of the Russian pediatrics, I — N. A., Tolsky, Pediatrics, No. 4, page 80, 1941.,
V. A. Tabolin.