From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TOKSOKAROZ (toxocariasis) — the helminthosis from group of nematodoses which is characterized by fever, bronchitis, pneumonia, a gepatosplenomegaliya, an eosinophilia. At the person distinguish larval (visceral) T. and imaginal (intestinal) T.

Activators — toksokara of dogs and cats. Toksokara of dogs — Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782); males 99 — 127 mm long, females — 126 — 198 mm, parasitize in a small bowel and a stomach of a dog, jackal, wolf and other animals this. canids. Toksokara of cats — Toxocara mystax (Zeder, 1800); males 30 — 70 mm long, females — 40 — 100 mm, parasitize in a small bowel and a stomach of a cat, lynx, leopard and other animals this. cat's. At the person of a toksokara of dogs toksokara of cats — in larval and occasionally in puberal (imaginal) stages parasitize only in a larval stage, and. Eggs current-sokar of both types of rounded shape, 0,065 — 0,077 mm long, are indistinguishable from each other, very steady against influences of the environment and can remain viable in the soil several years.

At animals the swallowed invasive eggs in intestines leave larvae, to-rye are implemented into a wall of a small bowel and on circulatory system get into lungs. Part of them then leave in a gleam of a trachea and bronchial tubes, with a phlegm are swallowed again and in intestines reach puberty; on 25 — the 28th day since the beginning of infection of a female toksokar lay eggs, to-rye with excrements of animals get to the environment. Part of the larvae which got into capillaries of lungs is brought by a drain of blood in various bodies and fabrics and encapsulated in them.

People catch T. at a proglatyvaniye of invasive eggs toksokar with the food and water contaminated by excrements of animals and also at contact with the infested animals; the larvae which left eggs after migration from intestines through a wall of a gut on blood vessels get to various bodies and fabrics where are encapsulated, keeping a long time biol. activity and causing larval T. U of people unlike animals of a larva get into intestines very seldom again (and only larvae toksokar cats); there they turn into an imago (a puberal stage of development) and cause imaginal T.

Lichinochny T. is described by Biver (R. S. Beaver) with sotr. in 1952. Cases larval T. are registered in many countries of the world. Meets at any age, however it is the most frequent at children of 1 — 4 years. The wedge, a picture depends on intensity of an invasion. At a weak invasion are noted a skin itch (see the Itch skin), recurrent small tortoiseshell (see), bronchitis (see) and eosinophilia (see). At a massive invasion the disease proceeds hard and is shown by recurrent fever, a gepatosplenomegaliya (or only a splenomegaly), bronchial pneumonia with fits of coughing and bronchial asthma, an enanthesis, puffiness of the person, education in various bodies of the specific granulomas containing larvae toksokar. The toksokarozny ophthalmitis with defeat of a back segment of an eye (chorioretinitis) therefore there can come the blindness (see) is possible. Cases of a keratitis are described (see). Duration of a disease from several months to several years. The diagnosis is made on a basis a wedge, pictures. Have a certain value serol. methods of a research — reaction indirect hemagglutinations (see) and reaction enzyme-mechennykh of antibodies (see Enzim-immuno a logical method) with toksokarozny antigen, a hyperglobulinemia, a persistent long eosinophilia — to 70 — 90% and ROE to 50 mm/hour. Treatment is carried out mintezoly (thiabendazole) in a daily dose of 25 — 50 mg/kg within 5 — 7 days; if necessary the course is repeated in 1 — 2 month. Apply the hyposensibilizing means. Forecast in most cases favorable.

Imaginal T. it is described only in isolated cases. It is clinically shown by nausea, abdominal pains, a plentiful slyunovydeleniye, a loss of appetite, dizziness. The diagnosis is made at detection of eggs toksokar in excrements. For treatment use piperazin, Kombantrinum and decafig. Forecast favorable.

Prevention larval and imaginal T. washing of hands after contact with these animals consists in identification and deworming of the infested dogs and cats, creation in the cities of special places for a range of dogs and cats.

See also Helminthoses , Nematodoses .

Bibliography: Karnaukhov V. K. To clinic and therapy of a toksokaroz at children, Vopr. okhr. mat. also it is put., t. 27, No. 7, page 35, 1982; The Multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of H. N. Zhuko-va-Verezhnikova, t. 9, page 665, M., 1968; Parasitic zoonoza, the lane with English, page 86, Geneva, WHO, 1980; Ramanauskay-te M. B., Bayorinen D. V. and Ptashekas R. S. Klinika of a toksokaroz at children, Pediatrics, No. 1, page 54, 1978; Holes Polish O. V. and Alekseeva M. I. Kliniko-immunologichesky parallels at a toksokaroza of the person, in book: An immunodiagnosis of tropical and parasitic diseases, under the editorship of A. Ya. Lysenko, page 83, M., 1980; Yampol O. V., Artemkina JI. N and Meshcheryakova N. A. Toksokaroz of the person, in book: A nosology and a nozogeogra-fiya of tropics, under the editorship of A. Ya. Lysenko, page 80, M., 1978.

V. K. Karnaukhov.